It is paramount that a business or an organization has a structure in order to identify and consequently succeed in TTS targets. A structure in the business also helps to prioritize the hierarchy, and it depicts levels of management from top to bottom. Organizational culture, on the other hand is said to mean, an organization’s values (Deal ; Kennedy 1982), an organization’s generally accepted system of meaning (Pettier 1979) or an organization’s operating philosophy (Couch 1981).According to Chine’s (1981, 1985, 1992) theory, organizational culture is defined as a pattern Of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, that has irked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as a correct way to perceive, think and feel in relation to those problems. (Scheme 1 992, p.
12). According the Scheme, organizational culture is the learned result of group experiences, and it is to a large extent unconscious (Scheme 1992). Scheme considers culture to be a three-layer phenomenon.This paper will look at the Organizational Structure of both Apple INC. And Hewlett-Packard. It will look at the relationship between organizational structure and culture in both the companies. It will explain how the different trustees and cultures of these companies can affect the performance of the business. It will also have a look at the factors, which influence individual behavior at work.
The second section will focus on the different approaches to management and leadership. It is a given that Apple Inc. And Hewlett- Packard have different management or leadership styles.So, this paper will compare both the management styles and evaluate both their effectiveness. It will then explain how organizational theory of leadership styles and management practices underpins the practices in these two companies. This section will also evaluate the different approaches to management used by different organizations.
The third section will have a look at motivational theories in Apple Inc. And Hewlett-Packard. It will discuss the impact that different leadership styles may have on motivation in organizations in periods of change.It will then compare the application of different motivational theories that are in practice within the workplace. It will also evaluate the usefulness of a motivation theory for managers in Apple Inc.
And Hewlett and Packard. The fourth section of the paper will concentrate on the mechanisms or developing effective teamwork in organizations. It will explain the nature of groups and group behavior within organizations.
It will also discuss the factors that may promote or inhibit the development of effective teamwork in organizations. It will then evaluate the impact of technology on team functioning within Apple Inc. And Hewlett and Packard.The paper will finally make some concluding remarks on the ‘Behavior’ of both the organizations. Section 1: Relationship between organizational structure and culture 1.
1 comparing and contrasting organizational structures and culture of Apple and Hewlett-Packard Apple INC. Apple Inc. And its wholly-owned subsidiaries (collectively “Apple” or the “Company’) designs, manufactures and markets a range of personal computers, mobile communication and media devices, and portable digital music players, and sells a variety of related software, services, peripherals, networking solutions, and third-party digital content and applications.
The Company’s products and services include Macintosh (“Mac”) computers, phone, pad, pod, Apple TV, Serve, a portfolio of consumer and professional software applications, the Mac SO X and sis operating systems, third-party agitate content and applications through the tunes Store, and a variety of accessory, service and support offerings. The Company sells its products worldwide through its retail stores, online stores, and direct sales force and third-party cellular network carriers, wholesalers, retailers, and value-added resellers.In addition, the Company sells a variety of third-party Mac, phone, pad and pod compatible products, including application software, printers, storage devices, speakers, headphones, and various other accessories and peripherals, through its online and retail stores.
The Company sells to nonuser, small and mid-sized business (“SMB”), education, enterprise, government and creative markets. The Company’s fiscal year is the 52 or 53- week period that ends on the last Saturday of September. Unless otherwise stated, all information presented in this Form 10-K is based on the Company’s fiscal calendar.The Company is a California corporation founded in 1977. (towpath. Sec.
Caregivers/Edgar/data/320193/0001 1931251 1282113/ d220209d10k. HTML) Business Strategy The Company is committed to bringing the best user experience to its customers through its innovative hardware, software, peripherals, services, and Internet offerings. The Company’s business strategy leverages its unique ability to design and develop its own operating systems, hardware, application software, and services to provide its customers new products and solutions with superior ease-of-use, seamless integration, and innovative industrial design.The Company believes continual investment in research and development is critical to the development and enhancement of innovative products and technologies. In conjunction with its strategy, the Company continues to build and host a robust platform for the discovery and delivery of third-party digital content and applications through the tunes Store. The Tunes Store includes the App Store and bookstore, which allow customers to discover and download third-party applications and books through either a Mac or Windows-based computer or wirelessly through an phone, pad or pod touch.The Company also works to support a community for the development of third-party software and hardware products and digital content that complement the Company’s offerings.
Additionally, the Company’s strategy includes expanding its distribution to effectively reach more customers and provide them with a high-quality sales and post-sales support experience. The Company is therefore uniquely positioned to offer period and well-integrated digital lifestyle and productivity solutions. Hewlett -Packard: HP is an American multinational hardware and software corporation headquartered in Palo Alto, California, united States.It provides products, technologies, soft;are, solutions and services to consumers, small- and medium-sized businesses (SMB) and large enterprises, including customers in the government, health and education sectors. The company was founded in a one car garage in Palo Alto by William Hewlett and Dave Packard. HP is the world’s leading PC manufacturer.
From the beginning the two founders have developed a management style which had never occurred in a large company before.They coined a new type of corporate culture which was to be called “the HP way. HP always renounced the “hire and fire” mentality, which meant to employ many workers for a single big order and to dismiss them afterwards. Instead, the company offered its employees “almost perfect job security. “) Even in 1974, when the U. S. Economy was in a profound crisis and many people were unemployed, HP avoided layoffs by a four-day workweek, which was a unique measure in corporate America. The two founders trusted in the “individual’s own motivation to work”) and rated their employees as family members; hence the custom to call each other by the first name even the two chiefs were only known as Bill and Dave.
The HP workers were participated in the company with stock options and were even paid additional premiums when HP was successful – today known as profit sharing. These measures served to identify the employees with their work and to encourage them. Moreover, the HP way included extensive employment benefits such as scholarships for the employee’s children. At the end of the sass Bill and Dave decided to write down the company’s objectives, which were to serve as guidelines for “all decision-making by HP people, I’) since the company had grown ever larger.With some changes, those objectives are still valid today. They cover as follows: “Profit, Customers, Fields of Interest, Growth, Our People, Management, and Citizenship. “) And these objectives are to be achieved through teamwork.
Hap’s strategies nowadays comprise mainly the “Management by Objectives”, “Management by Wandering around” meaning informal communication within the company, and “Total Quality Control” which aims at producing highly qualified products. ) The HP way IS seen as model for corporate culture in many countries. The roots of many subsequent companies are located in HP, e. . Steve Woozier, who worked at HP and later co-founded Apple.This has led to the establishment of a new corporate culture in Silicon Valley and many firms have tried to imitate the HP way and ad opted measures such as stock options, innovative work rules, teamwork, and profit sharing.
1. 2 explaining how the relationship between an organization’s structure and culture can impact on the performance of the business There are four types of cultures in the organization according to Charles Handy: The power ultra: Handy describes the power culture as a ‘web’.He suggests that this reflects the concentration of power of a family-owned business, which can either be extremely large or small. The family operation with strict responsibilities going to family member’s responsibility given to personalities rather than expertise creates the power structure of the ‘web’.
The important point to note is that, because power and decision-making is concentrated in so few hands, the strategists and key family members create situations that others have to implement.It is difficult for others outside the ‘family network’ to influence events. The ability of the power culture to adapt to changes in the environment is very much determined by the perception and ability of those who occupy the positions of power within it. The role culture: This has been typified as a Greek temple and has often been stereotyped as portraying bureaucracy in its purest form. This is very much an organization culture run by a paper system. An authority is not based on personal initiative but is dictated by job descriptions.Co-ordination is by a narrow band of senior staff.
This is the only coordination required as the system provides the accessory integration. Handy states that the job description is more important than the skills and abilities of those who people the culture. Performance beyond the role prescription is not required or encouraged.
The authority of position power is legitimate. Personal power is not. This reflects Weeper’s pure theory of bureaucracy. System effectiveness depends upon adherence to principles rather than personalities.Handy suggests that this culture is appropriate in organizations that are not subject to constant change The task culture: This is characteristic of organizations which are involved in extensive research ND development activities they are much more dynamic. They are constantly subject to change and have to create temporary task teams to meet their future needs. Information and expertise are the skills that are of value here.
The culture is represented best by a net or latticework.There is close liaison between departments; functions and specialties, liaison, communication and integration are the means whereby the organization can anticipate and adapt to change quickly. Influence in this team culture is based upon expertise and up-to-date information where the culture is most in tune with results. The dangers for this culture exist when there is a restriction in resources causing it to become more power’ or ‘role’ orientated. The person culture: This is characteristic of the consensus model of management, where the individuals within the structure determine collectively the path that the organization pursues.If there is a formalized structure, it tends to service the needs of the individuals within the structure. Organizations that portray this culture erect formal hierarchies for ‘getting things done’ and exist solely to meet the needs of their members. The rejection of formal ‘management intro’ and ‘reporting relationships’ suggests that this may be a suits blew culture for a self-help group or a commune, etc.
, but it is not appropriate for business organizations.Every business is made up of different cultures and the cultures that are present within the business depend on the management style and the organizational structures that are used. Http:// HTML_overview/05_couture_handy. HTML) The table below summaries the information given above.
Type of culture I Description I Symbol Relevance to organization I power culture I This is represented metaphorically by Zeus and has a strong leader ho has likes and use power all lines of communication lead formally or informally to the leader I Both the companies are big companies so power culture is does not apply over there. I Role culture I This is personified as Apollo the good of order and rules with its structure represented by a Greek temple.Such organization are bureaucratic there are clearly defined roles and procedure I Role culture is culture that HP adopts because its more than individual everyone know about their role and responsibility to carry out In this culture position main source of power and rules and procedures are the main source of influence Task culture This is characteristic Of organizations which are involved in extensive research and development activities they are much more dynamic.
They are constantly subject to change and have to create temporary task teams to meet their future needs I Apple Inc. Sees task culture the employee from the different departments might have to work together to achieve their goal . I Person culture I This is characteristic of the consensus model of management, where the individuals within the structure determine collectively the path that the organization pursues. If there is a formalized Truckee, it tends to service the needs of the individuals within the structure.I Person culture does not apply in either of the companies because they are not about individuals but about their roles. I (http://www. Lindsay- Sherwin.
Co. UK/guide_managing_change/ HTML_overview/05_couture_handy. Tm) Apple Inc. Practices the task culture.
At apple Inc. Teams are formed to solve particular problems. Power is derived from the team with the expertise to execute against a task. This culture uses a small team approach, where people are highly skilled and specialized in their own area of expertise.Task culture is job-or project-oriented, and its accompanying structure can be best represented as a net (see Figure 20). Some of the strands of the net are thicker or stronger than others, and much of the power and influence is located at the interstices of the net, at the knots.
Task cultures are often associated with organizations that adopt matrix or project-based structural designs. (http://WV. Open. Deed/opener/money- management/management/leadership-and-management/management- perspective-and-practice/content-section-3. 5. 2) The emphasis is on getting the job done, and the culture seeks to bring together the appropriate sources and the right people at the right level in order to assemble the relevant resources for the completion of a particular project.
A task culture depends on the unifying power of the group to improve efficiency and to help the individual identify with the objectives of the organization.So it is a team culture, where the outcome of the team’s work takes precedence over individual objectives and most status and style differences. Influence is based more on expert power than on position or personal power, and influence is more widely dispersed than in other cultures. Task culture depends on teamwork to produce results. Groups, project teams or task forces are formed for a specific purpose and can be re-formed, abandoned or continued. The organization can respond rapidly since each group ideally contains all the decision-making powers required.One example of a task culture is NASA, the US space agency, which in the 1 sass had the specific task of putting a man on the moon before the end of the decade and bringing him back safely. Individuals find that this culture offers a high degree of autonomy, judgment by results, easy working relationships within groups and mutual respect based on ability rather than on age or status.
The task culture is therefore appropriate when flexibility and sensitivity to the market or environment are important, where the market is competitive, where the life of a product is short and/or where the speed of reaction is critical.Against this must be set the difficulty of managing a large organization as a flexible group, and of producing economies of scale or great depth of expertise. Control in these organizations can be difficult. Senior managers, who concentrate on the allocation of projects, people and resources, retain essential control but they exert little day-to-day control over methods of irking or procedures, without violating the norms of the culture. This works well in favorable circumstances and when resources are available for those who can justify using them.However, when resources are not freely available, senior managers begin to feel the need to control methods as well as results, and team leaders may begin to compete for resources, using political influence.
Morale in the work groups tends to decline and the job becomes less satisfying in itself, so that employees begin to reveal their own objectives. This necessitates the introduction of rules and procedures, the use of position r the control of resources by managers to get the work done.So the task culture has a tendency to change to a role or power culture when resources are limited or when the whole organization is unsuccessful. Most managers, certainly at the middle and junior levels, prefer to work in the task culture, with its emphasis on groups, expert power, rewards for results and a merging of individual and group objectives. It is most in tune with the current trends of change and adaptation, individual freedom and low status differentials – but it may not be an appropriate culture for all circumstances.HP, on the other hand, applies the role culture. This is where all members have defined hob or role to carry out. Role culture is normally split into a number of functions that are organized in a hierarchical manner.
HP would divide themselves into various functions like accounts, marketing, and production. These also have hierarchical ordering of office examples of these are production director, production managers, supervisors, technicians operatives etc. This type of culture works by logic and rationally.Role culture is mainly used in large organizations. In this culture position in the main resource of power and rules and procedures are the main source Of influence. The role culture can be illustrated as a building supported by columns and beams: each column and beam has a specific role to playing keeping up the building individuals are role occupants but the role continues even if the individual leaves. This culture shares a number of factors in common with Weeper’s description of the ‘ideal-type’ bureaucracy.This type of organization is characterized by strong functional or specialized areas coordinated by a narrow band of senior management at the top and a high degree of Romanization and standardization; the work of the functional areas and the interactions between them are controlled by rules and procedures defining the job, the authority that goes with it, the mode of communication and the settlement Of disputes.
Position is the main power source in the role culture. People are selected to perform roles satisfactorily; personal power is frowned upon and expert power is tolerated only in its proper place.Rules and procedures are the chief methods of influence. The efficiency of this culture depends on the rationality of the allocation of work and responsibility rather Han on individual personalities.
This type of organization is likely to be successful in a stable environment, where the market is steady, predictable or controllable, or where the product’s life cycle is long, as used to be the case with many UK public sector bodies. Conversely, the role culture finds it difficult to adapt to change; it is usually slow to perceive the need for it and to respond appropriately.Such an organization will be found where economies of scale are more important than flexibility or where technical expertise and depth of specialization are more important than product innovation or arrive cost -? for example, in many public service organizations. For employees, the role culture offers security and the opportunity to acquire specialist expertise; performance up to a required standard is rewarded on the appropriate pay scale, and possibly by promotion within the functional area.However, this culture is frustrating for ambitious people who are power orientated, want control over their work or are more interested in results than method. Such people will be content in this culture only as senior managers.
The importance of Hands role culture is that it suggests that reassurance itself is not culture-free. 1. 3 discussing the factors, which influence individual behavior at work According to John Evangelic and Michael Mattson, the major factors that influence individual differences in behavioral patterns are demographic factors, abilities and skills, perception, attitudes and personality.Let us discuss them and they are as follows:- 1 . Demographic Factors: The demographic factors are socio economic background, education, nationality, race, age, sex, etc. Organizations prefer persons that belong to good socio-economic background, well educated, nouns etc as they are believed to be performing better than the others.
The young and dynamic professionals that have good academic background and effective communication skills are always in great demand. The study of demographic factors is significant as it helps managers to pick the suitable candidate for a particular job. . Abilities and Skills: The physical capacity of an individual to do something can be termed as ability. Skill can be defined as the ability to act in a way that allows a person to perform well.The individual behavior and performance is highly influenced by ability and skills. A person can perform well in the organization if his abilities and skills are matched with the job requirement.
The managers plays vital role in matching the abilities and skills of the employees with the particular job requirement. 3.Perception: The cognitive process meant for interpreting the environmental stimuli in a meaningful way is referred to as perception.
Every individual on the basis of his/he reference can organize and interpret environmental stimuli. There are many factors that influence the perception of an individual.The study of perception plays important role for the managers. It is important for mangers to create the favorable work environment so that employees perceive them in most favorable way. The employees are likely to perform better if they are going to perceive it in a positive way. . Attitude: According to psychologists, attitude can be defined as a tendency to respond favorably or unfavorable to certain objects, persons or situations.
The factors such as family, society, culture, peers and organizational factors influence the formation Of attitude. The managers in an organization need to study the variables related to job as to create the work environment in a favorable way that employees are tempted to form a positive attitude towards their respective jobs. The employees can perform better in the organization if they form a positive attitude.5.Personality: Personality can be defined as the study of the characteristics and distinctive traits of an individual, the inter-relations between them and the way in which a person responds and adjusts to other people and situations. The several factors that influence the personality of an individual are heredity, family, society, culture and situation. It implies to the fact that individuals differ in their manner while responding to the organizational environment. Personality can be regarded as the most complex aspect of human beings that influences their behavior in big way.
It can be concluded that the study of personality traits offers an opportunity to understand the individuals. It helps them properly in directing their effort and motivating them for the accomplishment of the organizational goal. It refers to the fact that different environmental factors may generate different responses. The study of these responses is very important for the organization.
Every origination demands a particular type of behavior from their employees and such behaviors can be discovered through observation, learning, exposure, training, etc.