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Bones were considered to be the very important part
of our body in terms of the pivotal role played by it in the whole body. Bone
is the storage house of calcium which can regulate the concentration of Ca2
+ in the human body. Moreover, bone marrow contains hematopoietic stem cells
which are responsible for the production of mature blood cells in bone marrow6. In addition, the bones
provide high mechanical strength, to support body’s organization. Bones are highly mineralized connective tissue
that forms the skeleton of most vertebrates and have properties such as
hardness, toughness, and self-healing 7, 8. The hard bone is
composed of organic matter and inorganic matter, of which organic matter
accounts for about 30% of the total dry weight. This mainly composed by about
90 to 95% Collagen, 1% glycosaminoglycan and about 5% of other proteins8, that provides certain
toughness for the hard bone. Correspondingly, inorganic matter accounts for about
70% of the dry weight, mainly calcium and phosphorus, that is responsible for the
hardness of hard bone. Therefore, the bones have both toughness and hardness,
so that it can form a skeleton to support body weight, to protect internal
organs and for other functions. Moreover, bones are also important site for hematopoiesis
and for the storage and release of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and sodium
ions. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), Can differentiate into hard
bones, cartilage, tendons, muscles, skin and adipose tissue. There are also
different types of hematopoietic stem cells in the marrow cavity, resulting in
red blood cells and white blood cells, that have the function of transporting
gas (O2 and CO2) and immune ability 9. In the process of bone
differentiation, a series of reactions are involved. In these reactions, particularly
in complicated reactions, the extracellular matrix plays number of roles, such
as providing cell support and attachment, as well as separating the tissues and
cells from each other10. On the other hand, the
changes of physiological microenvironment can trigger the continual secretion
of cells11.  In the regulation of cells, these coordinated
messages indicate that the cells acquire specific differentiation, such as the
regulation of cell development, proliferation, migration and function. Therefore,
in tissue engineering applications and tissue remodeling, the interaction of
cells with the extracellular matrix is ??an important issue12. 

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