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The quantity and composition of the urine reflects various biochemical processes that occur in the body. Thus, the composition of the urine of an individual may change when a person is unhealthy or has a disease. In such a case, it is common to observe the presence of abnormal components or normal components in abnormal quantities present in the urine. AppARATUS : 1) Test tubes 2) Boiling water bath 3) Microscope 4) Slides and cover slips 5) Pasteur pipettes MATERIALS: 1) pH test strips 2) Benedicts reagent PROCEDURES: Collect the urine samples in a container.

Make sure to not spill maneuvered in the lab. Complete the tests and all results/ observation are in a proper table. (A) Observation of urine 1) The urine is sniffed and the description of the urine is described. Terminologies like slightly nutty, sweet/ fruity or pungent can be used 2) Comment on the color of the sample. The color hue of the urine is precisely described. 3) The clarity if the urine is recorded (B) Testing for pH 1) A pH strip was dipped into the urine sample. 2) The strip is then removed and the color of the strip is then compared with the scale provided.

C) Sediment analysis 1) One test tube is filled with the urine sample 2) The tube is then set in a centrifuge opposite of another sample. 3) The tube is spun for 5 minutes. 4) After the centrifuging, the supernatant is poured off and is then transferred into another clean test tube. The urine is placed aside for other testing. 5) The tube is shaken to re-suspend the sediment. Using a Pasteur pipette, one drop of the suspension is transferred into a microscope slide to make a wet mount. 6) The slide is then observed under the microscope. D) Testing for albumin ) The supernatant is separated into two parts, one to be used for part D and another for part E 2) One tube is put in a boiling water bath for 5 minutes. 3) The cloudiness of the heated supernatant is then compared with the unheated portion that was kept. (E) Testing for glucose 1) 10 drops of the Benedicts solution is added to the unheated supernatant from part D. 2) A second test tube is filled with similar amount of water and Benedicts solution (this is to serve as a control). 3) The tubes are put in a boiling water bath for 3 minutes and allowed to cool. 4) The color of the samples were observed.

RESULTS : Test (A) Observation of urine; * The urine smelled nutty * The color hue is pale yellow * The clarity of the urine is clear Test (B) Test for PR; * The pH of the urine was 6. 00 Test (D) Testing for albumin; * The urine turned cloudy after being heated, the initial color which was bluish yellow turned dark yellow green in color, protein was not present. Test (E) Testing for glucose * Initial color of the solution which was bluish yellow turned to light green with participate, reducing sugar is present. DISCUSSION The color of urine can stretch from the almost clear to a dark orange and it’s imply a matter of hydration.

Food can also have an effect on color and can cause different smells, as can any medications or supplements. The pH level of normal urine should be slightly below 7 because of the presence of urea in the urine. A diet high in citrus, vegetables, or dairy can increase urine Protein is usually not found in the urine. The presence of albumin in the urine (albumin’s) has been shown to be a sensitive indicator of kidney disease in people with diabetes and with hypertension. Normally, urine contains low levels or no glucose because the kidneys are able o reclaim all of the filtered glucose back into the bloodstream.

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