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Humans, gorillas, chimps, bats, Guiana pigs and birds are some of the few animals that cannot make vitamin C inside of their own bodies. Humans vary greatly in their vitamin C requirement. It’s natural for one person to need 10 times as much vitamin C as another person; and a person’s age and health status can dramatically change his or her need for vitamin C. The amount of vitamin C found in food varies as dramatically as our human requirement. In general, an unripe food is much lower in vitamin C than a ripe one, but provided that the food is ripe, the vitamin C content is higher when the food is younger at the time of harvest.

Vitamin C serves a predominantly protective role in the body. As early s the 1 ass’s, vitamin C was referred to as the “antibiotics factor,” since it helped prevent the disease called scurvy. This disease was first discovered in British sailors, whose sea voyages left them far away from natural surroundings for long periods of time. Their body stores of vitamin C fell below 300 milliards, and their gums and skin lost the protective effects of vitamin C. Recognizing limes as a good shipboard source of vitamin C, the British sailors became known as “limey’s” for carrying large stores of limes aboard ship.

The protective role of vitamin C goes far beyond our skin and gums. Cardiovascular diseases, cancers, joint diseases and cataracts are all associated with vitamin C deficiency and can be partly prevented by optimal intake of vitamin C. Vitamin C achieves much of its protective effect by functioning as an antioxidant and preventing oxygen- based damage to our cells. Structures that contain fat (like the lepidopterist molecules that carry fat around our body) are particularly dependent on vitamin C for protection.

Full-blown symptoms of the vitamin C deficiency disease called scurvy”including bleeding gums and skin disconsolation due to ruptured blood vessels”are rare in the U. S. Poor wound healing, however, is not rare, and can be a symptom of vitamin C deficiency. Weak immune function, including susceptibility to colds and other infections, can also be a telltale sign of vitamin C deficiency. Since the lining of our respiratory tract also depend heavily on vitamin C for protection, respiratory infection and other lung-related conditions can also be symptomatic of vitamin C deficiency.

There are very few research studies that document vitamin C toxicity at any level of supplementation, and there are no documented toxicity effects whatsoever for vitamin C in relation to food and diet. At high supplemental doses involving 5 or more grams of vitamin C, diarrhea can result from the fluid in the intestine becoming too concentrated (“osmotic diarrhea”). Large supplemental doses of vitamin C can also increase levels of uric acid in the urine, because vitamin C can be broken down into uric acid.

However, it is not clear that increased uric acid in the urine can increase a person’s risk of forming uric acid kidney stones. Finally, vitamin C can increase a person’s absorption of iron from plant foods; and persons who have health problems related to excess free iron in their cells may want to consider avoiding gig supplemental doses of vitamin C. It is important to remember that all of the above toxicity-related issues involve vitamin C in supplemental form, not as it naturally occurs in food.

In 2000, the National Academy of Sciences set a Tolerable Upper Intake Level (LU) for vitamin C at 2,000 milliards (2 grams) for adults 19 years or older. Poor intake of vitamin C-rich vegetables and fruits is a common contributor to vitamin C deficiency. In the U. S. , one third of all adults get less vitamin C from their diet than is recommended by the National Academy of Sciences, and 1 out of every 6 adults gets less than half the amount commended. Smoking and exposure to second hand smoke also increase the risk of vitamin C deficiency.

The body’s immune and detoxification systems make special use of vitamin C, and overload in either of these systems can increase risk of deficiency. The immune system relies on a wide variety of mechanisms to help protect the body from infection, including white blood cells, complement proteins, and interferon’s; and vitamin C is especially important in the function of these immune components. Vitamin C is also critical during the first phase of the body’s detoxification process. This process occurs in any types of tissue, but it is especially active in the liver.

When the body is exposed to toxins, vitamin C is often required for the body to begin processing the toxins for elimination. Excessive toxic exposure is therefore a risk factor for vitamin C deficiency. Excellent food sources of vitamin C include broccoli, bell peppers, parsley, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, lemon juice, strawberries, mustard greens, kiwifruit, papaya, kale, cabbage, romaine lettuce, turnip greens, oranges, cantaloupe, summer squash, grapefruit, pineapple, chard, tomatoes, collard greens, raspberries, spinach, green beans, fennel, cranberries, asparagus, iteration, and winter squash.

Vitamin C has significant interactions with several key minerals in the body. Supplemental intake of vitamin C at gram- level doses can interfere with copper metabolism. Conversely, vitamin C can significantly enhance iron uptake and metabolism, even at food-level amounts. Vitamin C also has important interactions with other vitamins. Excessive intake of vitamin A, for example, is less toxic to the body when vitamin C is readily available. Vitamin C is involved in the regeneration of vitamin E, and these two vitamins appear to work together in their antioxidant effect.

Problem Statement : Do different types fruit juice contain the similar amount of vitamin C? Hypothesis : 1. Fresh lime juice contain higher concentration of vitamin C compared to fresh orange juice. 2. Fresh juices contain higher concentration of vitamin C compared to commercial juices. Variables DUCKPIN solution Experiment A Apparatus : Manipulated: Type of fruit juices and State of fruit juice Responding: Volume of fruit juice needed to discourse Constant : Opium and concentration of DUCKPIN solution : ml syringe, dropper, test tubes, ml measuring cylinder, moll beaker and knife Material : 1. dichlorophenolindophenol (DUCKPIN) solution, freshly squeezed fruit juice (orange and lemon) and commercial juices (orange and lemon). Experiment B : White tile, knife, ml syringes, ml measuring cylinder, moll measuring cylinder, test tubes, test tube rack, glass rod, 250 ml beaker, mortar and pestle and dropper Materials : Vitamin C tablets, 1. 0% dichlorophenolindophenol (DUCKPIN) solution and distilled water. Procedure 1 . Orange and lemon fruits are squeezed to obtain fresh juices and they are placed in a moll beaker separately. 2.

Commercial lemon and orange juices from its respective cartons are poured onto a beaker each. 3. DUCKPIN solution is put into ml measuring cylinder using a dropper. Mil DUCKPIN solution is poured into a test tube. 4. Mi syringe is used to take ml of fresh lemon juice from its beaker. 5. The fresh lemon juice is added drop by drop into the DUCKPIN solution in the test tube. The test tube is swirled gently. 6. The color changes of the DUCKPIN solution (dark blue to light mud green) is observed. The volume of fresh lemon juice used to change color of DUCKPIN solution is read from the syringe and recorded in a table. . Step 3 to 6 is repeated using fresh orange juice, commercial lemon juice and immemorial orange juice. 1 . 250 MGM of vitamin C tablet is prepared by cutting the one whole tablet which is 1000 MGM into four pieces using blade on a white tile. 2. The tablet is crushed by using mortar and pestle. 3. 100 ml of distilled water is measured using 100 ml measuring cylinder. 4. The distilled water is poured into a beaker and the vitamin C is dissolved into the solution. 5. 1 ml of of DUCKPIN solution is measured using a syringe and put into test tube. 6. Ml of the vitamin C is measured using a syringe and is added drop by drop to the 1% of DUCKPIN solution until the dark blue solution became colorless. The suture must be swirled gently. 7. The volume of vitamin C needed to discourse 1% of DUCKPIN solution is recorded. 8. Steps 1-7 is repeated by using different mass of vitamin C tablets which 500 MGM, 1000 MGM, 1500 MGM, 1750 MGM and 2000 MGM. 9. All results are recorded and tabulated in table 1. Concentration of vitamin C (MGM/ml) = Mass of vitamin C tablet (MGM) Volume of distilled water (ml) 10. The concentration of vitamin C was calculated by using formula: 11.

A graph of the volume of the vitamin C needed to discourse 1% DUCKPIN solution against the concentration of vitamin C is drawn which known as the standard curve. Rest Its Types of Fruit Juice I Volume of fruit juice needed to discourse Mil of DUCKPIN solution (ml)l Fresh Lemon 1 5. 01 Fresh Orange | 2. 0 | Commercial Lemon | 10. 0 | Commercial Orange | 8. 0 Table 1 Table 2 Amount of Vitamin C Tablet(MGM) I Concentration Of Vitamin C (MGM/ml) Volume of Vitamin C needed to discourse Mil DUCKPIN solution (ml) | 250 | 2. 50 | 2. 00 | 500 | 5. 00 | 1. 90 | 1000 | 10. 00 | 1. 80 | 1500 | 15. 00 1 1. 01 1750 | 17. 50 | 1. 00 | | 20. 00 | 0. 80 | 2000 Discussion In this experiment, the aim is to determine the vitamin C concentration in various fruit juice. The manipulated variable in this experiment is the types of fruit juices which are fresh and commercial orange and lemon juices. The responding variable is the volume of fruit juice needed to discourse the DUCKPIN solution which is from dark blue color to colorless. The concentration and volume of DUCKPIN solution is fixed throughout this experiment in order to obtain an accurate volume of fruit juice which can discourse this solution.

Through the results in experiment B, a standard graph is plotted to obtain the concentration of vitamin C of fruit juices in experiment A. From the results obtain, it is advised to repeat experiment B with more incineration of vitamin C so that the graph drawn is suitable to plot the points of experiment A. Table 1 shows volume of different types of fruit juice needed to discourse DUCKPIN solution. There are differences in volume of juices needed due to their vitamin C content. Each fruit juice contains different amount of vitamin C in them.

Through this experiment, it is clearly stated that fresh fruit juices contains more vitamin C content compared to commercial fruit juices. This is because less volume of fresh fruit juice is needed to discourse DUCKPIN solution compared to the volume of commercial fruit juices needed. Thus, we can roughly conclude that fresh fruit juices contain higher concentration of vitamin C compared to commercial fruit juices. The foremost reason that commercial fruit juices contain less vitamin C content is because during package, the juices might be added colorings or preservatives for longer lifespan and advertising purposes.

Besides, these juices have been heated to kill bacteria to ensure the juice is long lasting. This step destroys the vitamin C content in fruit juices since it is vulnerable to heat. The volume of fresh lemon juice and fresh orange juice needed to discourse Mil of 1% DUCKPIN solution is . 0 ml and 2. 0 ml respectively. Meanwhile, the volume of commercial juices which are carton lemon juice and carton orange juice needed to discourse Mil of 1% DUCKPIN solution is 10. 0 ml and 8. 0 ml respectively. During the experiment, DUCKPIN solution did not discourse completely.

As a result the intensity of brown color varies as we determine whether the DUCKPIN had disclosures. Thus this affects the accuracy of the experiment. Graph 1 shows the volume of Vitamin C needed to discourse Mil of 1% DUCKPIN solution against the concentration of vitamin C. This graph is also known as the standard curve. It enables us to determine the exact vitamin C concentration in the fruit juices. From the graph we can deduce that the volume of vitamin C needed to discourse the Mil of 1% DUCKPIN solution is inversely proportional to the concentration on vitamin C.

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