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Assignment 1- Article Critque BY tullerl 6549 Assignment #1 : Article Critique Richard Kirkwood SOWK503 – summer 2013 Professor Dodson, LCSW June 3, 2013 Introduction This paper is a theoretical critique of Jung-Hwa Ha article, Parenting a Child With a Disability: The Role of Social Support for African American Parents, it will examine and discuss the articles main theoretic points, and explain some of its strengths and weaknesses Main Points African American Parents, attempts to observe the impact on the mental and physical health of urban dwelling African American parents parenting a disabled child.

First, Ha purports that raising a child with disabilities may lead to negative health consequences for urban-dwelling African American parents of the disabled child (Ha, Greenberg, & Seltzer, 2011, p. 405). Secondly, Ha considers the impact of the positive and negative social interactions between non-spousal family members with the custodial parent’s adaptation with a child with disabilities (Ha et al. , 2011, p. 405).

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The author states risk may vary within minority populations based on the “cultural norms, resources, and the support available for these parents,” these risks are factors that ccount for inconsistencies in caring for a child with disabilities that may eventually cause health and mental problems for the supporting parent (Ha et al. , 2011, p. 405). In the article, Ha contends caring for a disabled child can become a daunting experience for any parent confronted with multiple challenges, such as financial and emotional burdens of the “problematic behavioral and social stigmatization associated with the child’s disability’ (Ha et al. 2011, p. 405). In past studies, it is suggested that parents raising a disabled child experience more somatic symptoms nd psychological problems affecting the parents well being (Ha et al. , 2011, p. 405). She also considers studies on the impact affecting the “racial, marital, and socioeconomic status”; of urban dwelling African American parents compared to similar studies with White parents, that came to a conclusion that there were “both similarities and differences” with the adaptation of stress for both white and black parents, the burden of care giving were no different between the two races (Ha et al. 2011, p. 405). Research compared African American mothers with disabled children ore pronounced between the two groups, but a marked difference in health limitations for the mothers of disabled children (Ha et al. , 2011, p. 405). The article examines studies that indicate the positive and negative role of social interaction with non-spousal family members moderating effect on adaptation and immeasurable influence on the health of the parent supporting a disabled child (Ha et al. 2011, p. 406). Family can be the primary network that is instrumental in providing necessary resources and support for many of these mothers who are not married and have low incomes (Ha et al. , 2011, p. 406). Ha expounds that not all close social relationships provide nurturing positive support systems; social interactions can become toxic and exert negative effects on the mother psychologically (Ha et al. , 2011, p. 406).

Theoretical Value The article’s Systems model of Human and Family Development approach attempts to provide the dynamics of how the urban dwelling African American parents are a functioning parental subsystems within a system supporting the disabled children. The issue concerns the burden and the role of the supporting parent dealing with the impact associated risk of physical and emotional well-being. The authors suggest supporting severely disabled children eventually leads to somatic and mental problems affecting the psychological well being of the parent (Ha et al. 2011, p. 405). According to Olsson & Hwang, higher than normal levels of depression and “child related stress” has been associated with the parents caring for intellectual disabled children (Olsson & Hwang, 2008, p. 535). Low income and single mothers experience higher levels of “psychological distress” associated with heavy burdens of parenting, economic shortcoming, and overwhelming parental responsibilities (Ceballo & McLoyd, 2003, p. 1310).

In an opposing viewpoint Magana pointed out in a “Bivariate comparisons of African American parents of lower incomes and education exhibited more incidents of poor health compared to White women, but less stressful depressive disorders and more satisfaction in caring for their disabled children” (Magana, 2004, p. 131). Entropy occurs with urban dwelling African Americans that face higher incidents of financial burden, discrimination, and lack of education concerning the resources available for the care of their disabled children.

From an ecological perspective transaction among relationships with non-spousal amily members encourages adaptation among African American mothers supporting disabled children alleviating the burden of stress. Family structure improved family relationships; social interaction, individual identity, and economic viability, households became more stable because of the mediating factors that fortified coping resources (Walters, n. d. , fgure 1). The authors failed to include other reasons for the low incidents of depression with the African American parents oppose to white women.

African American parents tend to use more than non-spousal support o adapt to the daunting responsibilities of caring for their disabled children. African American mothers use higher levels of coping skills, mastering depression through high self-esteem, and using religion as an effective tool in coping with stress (Walters, n. d. , table 2). African Americans empathize the importance of religion in their daily lives embracing the principles that all are “God’s children and all children are 2004, p. 132).

From an ecological perspective, the theory relates to our environment and how we as people adapt to social and natural environments. Adaptation “emphasis the bility to adjust to the surrounding environment,” pulling ourselves up by the bootstrap and changing to “function effectively’ (Robbins, Chatterjee, & Canda, 2012, p. 32). The concept of adaptation and transaction within the article relates to the importance of the parents to “communicate and interact” with their family members to achieve the ability to dynamically achieve change within their environment (Zastrow, Kirst-Ashman, 2013, p. 0-31). Stokols, LeJano, & Hipp article on Social Ecological Perspective expounds on the “social ecological systems theory analyzing human resilience,” which allows the study of how resilience transcends nvironmental transactions, “periods of time, dimensions and scales” (Stokols, LeJano, & Hipp, 2013, p. 1). The authors contend that human-environment systems adjust to specific social goals to make modifications to their environment. Resiliency comes into play when the process of adaptation is supported “positively and mutually’ for the betterment of these goals (Stokols et al. 2013, p. 6). In the case of the urban dwelling African American parent’s resiliency can be achieved by the use of transactions to help set up goals to obtain the human resiliency by the processes of adaptation. Through this adaptation the ability to cope and sustain oneself allows the individual to make modifications in their natural and social environment. Conclusion What was so pronounce to me was that the author did not really understand the African American culture or Just chose to ignore it. It reflected as a grave lack of insight.

As an African American man I grew up surrounded by strong black women, grandmothers, aunts, cousins and neighbors who were always there in the background pushing, encouraging, and stepping in when the time was needed. No matter how poor, economically stable or a where black woman lives, urban, rural or uburban, the few things she does have is her family, strength and her faith. My assessment of the article was bewilderment in that the article and research appeared to be bias, the bewilderment stems from why does research such as always have to be compared to white culture?

It is a recorded fact that long term care among African Americans rarely includes the use of institutions compared to our white counterparts. The African American culture especially among the women of color to employ the ecological social environment daily on a minute by minute basis. Transactions, adaptation and coping are the staples of African American community as a whole. Discrimination, economic instability and single motherhood have created a parent that supports her children to the death, physical limitation are a reality, but depression is rarely a case in point.

Coping and adaptation skills appear to be innate. Informal care giving of the sick and feeble has always been a challenge among black women who have learned to take it with stride. The ecology perspective has much to offer in explaining human interactions but it lacks empirical evidence hat it takes into account of cultures other than the white race. The concern I would have if I was the person in mention, would I even consider being part of such a study. What would be the benefit in reference to the child? rust would be insurmountable, as a poor urban dwelling parent she would be more than use to not having the resources needed to satisfy the needs to support her child. Faith would be sufficient, in light of the current government cuts to resources would only push her to not attempt to reach out for help in the governmental community, she has her support system that will always in some form be available. Ecofeminism encompasses the nature and oppression African American women experience throughout their lives, exploitative power inflicts injustice and denies the availability of resources required outside of her niche.

References Ceballo, R. , & McLoyd, V. C. (2003, January 23). Social support and parenting in poor, dangerous neighborhoods. Child Development, 73, No 4, 1310-1321. http://dx. doi. org/ child with a disability: The role of social support for african american parents. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Social Services, 92, No. 4, 405-411. Magana, S. 2004). African american families who care for adults with developmental disabilities or mental illness: A call for research.

American Research Perspectives, 10, no 1, 129-139. Olsson, M. B. , & Hwang, C. P. (2008, July 7). Depression in mothers and fathers of children with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 45, 535-543. http://dx. d0i. org/10. 1046/1. 1365-2788. 2001. 00372. x Robbins, S. P. , Chatterjee, P. , & Canda, E. R. (2012). Contemporary human behavior theory: A critcal perspective for social work (3rd ed. ). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Stokols, D. , LeJano, R. P. , & Hipp,J. (2013).

Enhancing the resilience of human-environment California, Irvine, 18, No 1, Art 7. 1-12. http://dx. doi. org/http://dx. doi. org/10. 5751/ ES-05301-180107 Walters, R. (n. d. ). Adjustment and coping of african american parents of children with severe cerebral palsy [PowerPoint Slides]. Retrieved from AUCD. org: www. aucd. org/… /AUCD%20Electronic%20Powerpoint%20Presentation Zastrow, C. H. , & Kirst-Ashman, K. K. (2013). Understanding human behavior and the social environment (9th ed. ). Canada: Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning.

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