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Assembly language unlikemachine uses codes to make operations codes, pseudo codes, and memory addressto make a virtual environment which is user friendly unlike machine.

A group ofrelated data items is named a data structure. High-level programming languageslike Java and C++ provide users with a rich collection of data and lists. Wecan program with these structures just as though they were already part of thehardware of the computer.

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Machine language instructions can’t carry out thetype of algorithmic command shown in pseudo code. When you write an instructionthat uses a structure such as a list, the compiler must map it into what isavailable on the hardware.  Machine language is a language which thecomputer can understand. That means a program written in machine languageconsists of the sequence of zeros and ones which are understandable bycomputer. But it is difficult to write a code that uses debugging as the onlycontent of the program that is sequence in binary. To gap the bridge assemblylanguage was introduced where each instruction is an understandable operation witha specified address. Which means writing and debugging the code becomes easierthrough assembly language as it provides understandable operation.

During the execution of the assembly languageprogram, the assembler convertsthe instruction from assembly language to machine language so that theinstructions are clear to the computer.High level programming language isvery much similar to human language unlike Low- level programming language. Itis written in simple English language which is very much understandable by programmerwhich means writing and debugging the code become easier, on the other hand lowlevel programming language is far from human language. It is a bit difficult towrite and debug complex programs in low level programming language even though it takes less time to execute than high levelprogramming language.Computers have beensolving problems in the workforce for generations, and gaining popularity forpersonal use the more parallel services. It has started interbreeding computersinto our daily life.

The Internet provides the user to access remote information that can fetch the file containingthe information which is available on some remote system by using protocols. Userscan communicate to another user who is far away by sending Emails which take momentsto be delivered no matter how far the receiver is. Email service also uses protocolsI will be discussing types soon.

Social media has taken a life of its own; internet has become popularfor entertainment and some social web sites. Starting from bulletins, growinginto social threads, and then scaling to full blown applications that run parallelwith other application thus turning websites into companies. Application layer shares communicationsprotocols and interface methods used by hosts in a communications network File TransferProtocol (FTP) to transfer file to and from remote machine. Simple Mail TransferProtocol (SMTP) to transfer and use mail service from one application toanother. Transport layer provides transparent transfer of data between end systems using theservices of the network layer transmission for connection oriented and communication. It uses portnumber to detect application to which the message is needed to be sent.

UserDatagram Protocol (UDP) for connection that is a less unreliable communication.It is used for short request-response communication between client and server.It is also used in interactive application which does not tolerate any unevendelay of getting a message.

Networklayerhandles addressing information, error checking, and routinginformation. Network protocols also define rules for communicating in aparticular networking environment such as ethernet. Internet protocol (IP) to transfer packet from source to destination. AddressResolution Protocol (ARP) to map from Receiver’s IP address to its MAC address.

A computer virus is nothing but a programwhich embeds in your computer without your knowledge and disrupts normalcomputer operation which could impede operations at a business. Some steps youshould follow to safeguard your computer from viruses are to install firewalls. A firewall protects your computer by providing a barrierbetween your computer and internet to prevent any unauthorized access to yoursystem. Install antivirus software and keep it up to dateregularly. Antivirus software prevents viruses from accessing any software orfrom interrupting normal execution of the program. Install anti-spyware software which protects your system from spywareattack.

Spyware is a program which collects your personal information.One of the most important is using your own judgment to decipher between reallinks and downloading mail or any filefrom the internet which may be suspicious to you.Recently a ransomwarecalled “WannaCry”, infected major countries affecting hospitals locking upfiles asking for bitcoin to unlock files. A malware that was on random siteslooking for weak security pc’s, the user didn’t even have to click a bait linkto have the ransomware infect their system. Windows has put out a patch to fixthis, however working in IT I have seen this same instance happen with paying greendot on local everyday machines. Usually in most cases booting up in non-networksafe mode and running an antivirus or looking for the corrupted file is thebest way to fix this issue.  Mobile datais almost as popular as cable or other ISP services. Recently in Chinaaccording to a journal Wi-Fi bread worms that infected mobile devices hopingonto other WI-FI’s.

This can prove problematic when people travel abroad andhave to use foreign wi-fi’s with infected Wi-Fi nodes and come back to theirown network to only infect their own company. Wi-Fi modules also need to beupdated with the latest firmware to make sure it can quarantine any infectednodes so it cannot be transmitted to other devices or networks. Also, recentlya well know company Target was hacked by one of its vendors and customer’s datawas breached.

This affects a company’s reputation and they ended up having tosettle lawsuits worth a considerable amount. We always think that the databreaches or hacks are someone halfway across the country but this can occur bypeople that have trust in the company and known access to a portion of theirfiles at one time. Also it could have infected itself through the network bysending legit invoices to companies with low budgets to spend on network security.Small companies with lots of local information are the most venerable in thesesituations they lack the funds to keep up with security and could affect an assortmentof people who would not report any issue to authorities. In conclusion thefast growth that the internet has endured has made computers run more parallelin our daily lives. I think with great power comes great risk and we shouldalways be taking counter measures to ensure data and security take priority tosocial and personal uses for tools like these.

We can look back on past issuesand learn from mistakes and know that phishing doesn’t take a user interface toinfect software. We have now un-coed machine language to be able to speak withuse using every day command prompts than having to write everything in binary.This might be the single most important thing that impacted hardware tointerface with software to be compatible to work with in our everyday life.

    ReferenceCraze, N. (2015, August 28). Types of Computer Languages with Their Advantages and Disadvantages.

     Retrieved January 21, 2018, from https://owlcation.com/stem/      Types-of-Computer-Languages-with-Advantages-and-Disadvantages  Allen, M. (2002, November 4). Networking Tutorial/Network Categories. Retrieved January 21, 2018 from http://www.comptechdoc.org/independent/networking/guide/netcategories.html  Schneider, G.

Michael, et al. Invitationto Computer Science. Cengage Learning, 2016.

 Larson, S. (2017, May 13). Massive cyberattack targeting 99countries causes sweeping havoc.

     Retrieved January21, 2018, from http://money.cnn.com/2017/05/12/technology/     ransomware-attack-nsa-microsoft/index.html   Xiao,X., Fu, P.

, Dou, C., Li, Q., Hu, G., & Xia, S.

(2017). Design and analysisof SEIQR worm propagation model in mobile internet. Communications InNonlinear Science & Numerical Simulation, 43341-350.doi:10.1016/j.cnsns.2016.07.012  

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