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Assembly language unlike
machine uses codes to make operations codes, pseudo codes, and memory address
to make a virtual environment which is user friendly unlike machine. A group of
related data items is named a data structure. High-level programming languages
like Java and C++ provide users with a rich collection of data and lists. We
can program with these structures just as though they were already part of the
hardware of the computer. Machine language instructions can’t carry out the
type of algorithmic command shown in pseudo code. When you write an instruction
that uses a structure such as a list, the compiler must map it into what is
available on the hardware.

 Machine language is a language which the
computer can understand. That means a program written in machine language
consists of the sequence of zeros and ones which are understandable by
computer. But it is difficult to write a code that uses debugging as the only
content of the program that is sequence in binary. To gap the bridge assembly
language was introduced where each instruction is an understandable operation with
a specified address. Which means writing and debugging the code becomes easier
through assembly language as it provides understandable operation. During the execution of the assembly language
program, the assembler converts
the instruction from assembly language to machine language so that the
instructions are clear to the computer.

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High level programming language is
very much similar to human language unlike Low- level programming language. It
is written in simple English language which is very much understandable by programmer
which means writing and debugging the code become easier, on the other hand low
level programming language is far from human language. It is a bit difficult to
write and debug complex programs in low level programming language even though it takes less time to execute than high level
programming language.

Computers have been
solving problems in the workforce for generations, and gaining popularity for
personal use the more parallel services. It has started interbreeding computers
into our daily life. The Internet provides the user to access remote information that can fetch the file containing
the information which is available on some remote system by using protocols. Users
can communicate to another user who is far away by sending Emails which take moments
to be delivered no matter how far the receiver is. Email service also uses protocols
I will be discussing types soon.
Social media has taken a life of its own; internet has become popular
for entertainment and some social web sites. Starting from bulletins, growing
into social threads, and then scaling to full blown applications that run parallel
with other application thus turning websites into companies.

Application layer shares communications
protocols and interface methods used by hosts in a communications network File Transfer
Protocol (FTP) to transfer file to and from remote machine. Simple Mail Transfer
Protocol (SMTP) to transfer and use mail service from one application to
another. Transport layer provides transparent transfer of data between end systems using the
services of the network layer transmission for connection oriented and communication. It uses port
number to detect application to which the message is needed to be sent. User
Datagram Protocol (UDP) for connection that is a less unreliable communication.
It is used for short request-response communication between client and server.
It is also used in interactive application which does not tolerate any uneven
delay of getting a message. Network
handles addressing information, error checking, and routing
information. Network protocols also define rules for communicating in a
particular networking environment such as ethernet. Internet protocol (IP) to transfer packet from source to destination. Address
Resolution Protocol (ARP) to map from Receiver’s IP address to its MAC address.

A computer virus is nothing but a program
which embeds in your computer without your knowledge and disrupts normal
computer operation which could impede operations at a business. Some steps you
should follow to safeguard your computer from viruses are to install firewalls. A firewall protects your computer by providing a barrier
between your computer and internet to prevent any unauthorized access to your
system. Install antivirus software and keep it up to date
regularly. Antivirus software prevents viruses from accessing any software or
from interrupting normal execution of the program. Install anti-spyware software which protects your system from spyware
attack. Spyware is a program which collects your personal information.
One of the most important is using your own judgment to decipher between real
links and downloading mail or any file
from the internet which may be suspicious to you.

Recently a ransomware
called “WannaCry”, infected major countries affecting hospitals locking up
files asking for bitcoin to unlock files. A malware that was on random sites
looking for weak security pc’s, the user didn’t even have to click a bait link
to have the ransomware infect their system. Windows has put out a patch to fix
this, however working in IT I have seen this same instance happen with paying green
dot on local everyday machines. Usually in most cases booting up in non-network
safe mode and running an antivirus or looking for the corrupted file is the
best way to fix this issue.  Mobile data
is almost as popular as cable or other ISP services. Recently in China
according to a journal Wi-Fi bread worms that infected mobile devices hoping
onto other WI-FI’s. This can prove problematic when people travel abroad and
have to use foreign wi-fi’s with infected Wi-Fi nodes and come back to their
own network to only infect their own company. Wi-Fi modules also need to be
updated with the latest firmware to make sure it can quarantine any infected
nodes so it cannot be transmitted to other devices or networks. Also, recently
a well know company Target was hacked by one of its vendors and customer’s data
was breached. This affects a company’s reputation and they ended up having to
settle lawsuits worth a considerable amount. We always think that the data
breaches or hacks are someone halfway across the country but this can occur by
people that have trust in the company and known access to a portion of their
files at one time. Also it could have infected itself through the network by
sending legit invoices to companies with low budgets to spend on network security.
Small companies with lots of local information are the most venerable in these
situations they lack the funds to keep up with security and could affect an assortment
of people who would not report any issue to authorities.

In conclusion the
fast growth that the internet has endured has made computers run more parallel
in our daily lives. I think with great power comes great risk and we should
always be taking counter measures to ensure data and security take priority to
social and personal uses for tools like these. We can look back on past issues
and learn from mistakes and know that phishing doesn’t take a user interface to
infect software. We have now un-coed machine language to be able to speak with
use using every day command prompts than having to write everything in binary.
This might be the single most important thing that impacted hardware to
interface with software to be compatible to work with in our everyday life.






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Schneider, G.Michael, et al. Invitation
to Computer Science. Cengage Learning, 2016.


Larson, S. (2017, May 13). Massive cyberattack targeting 99
countries causes sweeping havoc.

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21, 2018, from




X., Fu, P., Dou, C., Li, Q., Hu, G., & Xia, S. (2017). Design and analysis
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