As the human population grows, more resources are needed and more pollution occurred. As a result, species richness will decrease, because none of the two things can occupy the same place at the same time because the planet capacity is limited. We have to consider this problem seriously.UNESCO makes the international day for Biological Diversity on every May.22.Also, Ms. Irina Bokova, Director-General of UNESCO gave a message on an international day for Biological Diversity 2017.Ms.
Irina said, “Biodiversity is very important as much as life, It is very needed as much as cultural diversity for mankind, and we need it to create a stronger and resilient society.”However, Biodiversity has been rapidly decreasing by human activity. One of the serious problem is the Greenhouse effect by industrialization.The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts that 20-30% of species will be extinct if the Earth average temperature rise exceeds 1.
5-2.5 ° C, and 40% will be extinct if the temperature exceeds 4 ° C. (Füssel, H. M.
,2009)Below Major human Activities causes biodiversity loss (McKee, J. 2004).1) Land-use Changes cause habitat destruction and conversion to human use. For example, the construction of roads, the recreational facilities like ski resorts and golf courses, military facilities, irrigation facilities, and transmission and communication facilities.For the last 30 years, almost half of the primeval forests have been lost.In particular, tropical rainforests are only 6% of the Earth’s land area; More than 500 kinds of trees grow in the only 1HA of rainforests and more than half of the Earth’s organisms live in the rainforest. However, these rainforest is decreasing by 1% each year because of human’s logging activity.
In this rate, the rainforest will disappear in about 100 years and about 50~100 species will disappear in the next 30 years. ( Novacek, 2001).2) Human is doing too much resource exploitation like over hunting, illegal capture and overfishing. It causes the decrease of the specific population and they become extinct.About 75% of the 17 million people in Madagascar live in forests, and most of the forests have been destroyed by agriculture, pastures and firewood.More than one third of Madagascar forests are lost every year due to fire. It is mostly a deliberate fire for grassland or hunting.
The Madagascar population is growing at 3% per year, but the economy is ranked at about 10th in the world, making it a potential threat to natural forests. The rainforest sanctuary in eastern Madagascar is also being damaged by illegal logging. the local timber is trading at about $ 2,000 a ton is the main reason.One of the famous rare animals in the forest is Reimer which is a sort of ape mixed with cats, squirrels, and dogs, with social habits, long limbs, and flexible toes. Each color varies from gray to brown. All of them are endangered species.
The loss of habitat due to forest destruction is the main reason threatening reamers’ survive. 80% of the reamer habitats in Madagascar have already been destroyed and all reamers are protected by the CITES treaty, which prohibits illegal hunting, capture and trading.(The Climate Project ,Retrieved December 24, 2017, from http://www.sgf.or.kr/For the only reason to get the ivory, so many African elephants had been killed.
3) Nitrogen fertilizers make the dead zone of water. The use of fertilizer nitrogen for farming is serious pollution of the groundwater and it goes to the lake or ocean and this helps algae grow so fast and cover on the top of the water, the organism under the water cannot capture enough sunlight so it’s hard to process photosynthesis. As a result, marine plants, marine herbivore, and carnivore will die as well. ( Singh, B., & Sekhon, G. S. ,1979)4) Human makes mass of chemical pollution.
Waterborne pollutants are dump into the river. Many kinds of the chemical compound which human products like drugs, PCB(poly chlorinated biphenyl) are dumped into the ocean. It also makes Hormone Mimics act like the hormone. It controls the normal wild natural development and effect to reproduction organ of it.
5) Air pollution is the Harmful substances in the atmosphere. Using the fossil fuel that increases the number of particles and gas components (carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, hydrocarbons, etc.)