One may have ruined your last trip to the movies, but anticlimaxes have also been leaving their marks on literature for centuries. Come learn more about these lackluster finishes in this lesson and see their effects in some literary examples!
Major Letdown: Anticlimax Defined
Do you remember a time when you were really disappointed? Maybe your friend got you really excited about the huge homecoming parade, but you arrive to find only two floats and a few disinterested marchers? Perhaps your friend really thought it would be something special, or maybe he was just pulling your leg. Either way, when this happens in literature it’s known as an anticlimax, which describes the revelation of something trivial following the anticipation of something significant.The term ‘anticlimax’ can be used as a figure of speech to refer to a sentence that builds-up to an expectedly profound or otherwise significant end, but that fails to deliver anything of the sort. A good example of this single-sentence anticlimax comes from Mark Twain: ‘The holy passion of Friendship is of so sweet and steady and loyal and enduring a nature that it will last through a whole lifetime, if not asked to lend money.’ In this instance, the reader might expect the sentence to end with the expression of friendship’s eternal loyalty; however, Twain finishes by devaluing the relationship compared to our love of money.
We might be more familiar with this term in relation to entire literary scenes and plots. Nevertheless, anticlimaxes still serve to devalue their subjects in the same way. Like your friend raving over the parade, authors guilty of anticlimax may imagine that their subjects really are as significant as they initially portray them to be.
In 1728, Alexander Pope used the Greek word bathos (‘depths’) to describe this sort of failed goal toward significance. He noticed that – whether authors mean to fail in their intentions or whether the devaluation is inadvertent – anticlimactic scenes and plots often produce a humorously absurd effect. However, an anticlimax can also be used deliberately for its innate shock value, surprising readers with the true insignificance of what’s being discussed. If you’d like to see these methods of using anticlimax in action, just keep reading to get a few examples!
Examples of Anticlimax
Simon Lee: The Old Huntsman
This poem by William Wordsworth is a perfect example of what Pope would call ‘bathos.’ Throughout the piece, Wordsworth attempts to build great sympathy in the reader for the fate of Simon Lee.
The poet mentions the huntsman’s intense loneliness, extreme poverty, and poor health. On the subject of Simon’s health, though, Wordsworth falls a bit short of pulling our heartstrings when we’re expected to harbor such great pity over swollen ankles!’But, oh the heavy change!–bereftOf health, strength, friends, and kindred, see!Old Simon to the world is leftIn liveried poverty.His Master’s dead–and no one nowDwells in the Hall of Ivor;Men, dogs, and horses, all are dead;He is the sole survivor;Few months of life has he in storeAs he to you will tell,For still, the more he works, the moreDo his weak ankles swell.’
The Rape of the Lock
We weren’t supposed to laugh at the hardships of Wordsworth’s huntsman, but his condition does not come off quite as seriously as the poet intended. On the other hand, Alexander Pope himself frequently employs bathos to very intentional comic effect. His The Rape of the Lock is a mock epic, meaning it parodies the elevated language and themes of classical epics (i.
e. Homer’s Odyssey) by applying them to something as trivial as a lover stealing a lock of hair. This of course makes Pope’s entire work and others like it anticlimactic since the anticipation of the overarching plot is resolved in insignificance. However, Pope also fills The Rape of the Lock with smaller instances of bathos, such as the opening to Canto III, where the scene of Hampton Court Palace is supposed to evoke various stately goings on, but ends up being a spot for the Queen to take her tea.’There stands a structure of majestic frame,Which from the neighb’ring Hampton takes its name.
Here Britain’s statesmen oft the fall foredoomOf foreign Tyrants and of Nymphs at home;Here thou, great Anna! whom three realms obey.Dost sometimes counsel take — and sometimes Tea.’
War of the Worlds
Anyone who first reads this science fiction classic by H.
G. Wells is probably quite surprised by the eventual fate of the invading Martians. In a work spanning two volumes, Wells depicts a world in chaos and at the mercy of these malevolent alien invaders. After all of the destruction and subjugation, one might expect human society to rebound following a daringly desperate final onslaught. However, we come to find that it’s not an all-out brawl or even a surgical strike that defeats the Martians.
Instead, people eventually discover that the aliens and their transplanted red foliage are dropping in droves due to having no immunity to the pathogens of Earth. This anticlimax shocks us because we typically consider bacteria and other microorganisms insignificant compared to the height of human achievement. Nevertheless, Wells employs anticlimax in this instance to illustrate the triviality of any organism compared to the evolutionary processes that shape everything from Martians, to Earthlings, to the microbes that could kill us all.’And scattered about it, some in their overturned war-machines, some in the now rigid handling-machines, and a dozen of them stark and silent and laid in a row, were the Martians–dead!–slain by the putrefactive and disease bacteria against which their systems were unprepared; slain as the red weed was being slain; slain, after all man’s devices had failed, by the humblest things that God, in his wisdom, has put upon this earth.’
An anticlimax is the revelation of something trivial following the anticipation of something significant. The term may be applied to individual sentences, but we’re probably most familiar with it in reference to literary scenes and plots.
When authors mean to have their subjects seem important but fail to deliver anything of significance, Alexander Pope called this type of anticlimax bathos. Such anticlimaxes are typically humorously absurd, whether they are intended to be (i.e. Pope’s The Rape of the Lock) or not (i.
e. Wordsworth’s Simon Lee). Other examples of anticlimax such as Wells’ defeat of the Martians in War of the Worlds may also be deliberately employed to shock readers by displaying the true insignificance of the subject at hand.