Nutrition ( aliment ) is the provision, to cells and organisms, of the materials necessary, in the form of food (in the case of people) to support life. Good nutrition depends on a regular and balanced diet, because we need to feed our cells not only the quantities but also the right variety for its healthy function. The most famous Food Guidance is the Food Pyramid. 1. Common food groups A food group is a collection of foods that share similar nutritional properties or biological classifications. Nutrition guides typically divide foods into food groups and recommend daily servings of each group for a healthy diet.
Fats and oils, sometimes categorized with sweets, is typically a very small category in nutrition guides, if present at all, and is sometimes listed apart from other food groups. Examples include cooking oil, butter, margarine and shortening. Sweets, also called sugary foods and sometimes categorized with fats and oils, is typically a very small category in nutrition guides, if present at all, and is sometimes listed apart from other food groups. Examples include candy, soft drinks, cake, pie and ice cream.
Dairy, also called milk products and sometimes categorized with milk alternatives or meat, is typically a smaller category in nutrition guides. Examples of dairy products include milk, yogurt and cheese. Though they are also dairy products, ice cream is typically categorized with sweets and butter is typically classified with fats and oils in nutrition guides. Meat, sometimes labeled protein and occasionally inclusive of legumes, eggs, meat analogues and/or dairy, is typically a medium- to smaller-sized category in nutrition guides. Examples include chicken, fish, turkey, pork and beef.
Fruit, sometimes categorized with vegetables, is typically a medium-sized category in nutrition guides, though occasionally a small one. Examples include apples, oranges, bananas, berries and melons. Vegetables, sometimes categorized with fruit and occasionally inclusive of legumes, is typically a large category second only to grains, or sometimes equal to grains, in nutrition guides. Examples include spinach, carrots, onions, peppers, and broccoli. Grains, also called cereals and sometimes inclusive of potatoes and other starches, is often the largest category in nutrition guides. Examples include wheat, rice, oats, barley, bread and pasta.
Water is treated in very different ways by different food guides. Some exclude the category, others list it separately from other food groups, and yet others make it the center or foundation of the guide. Water is sometimes categorized with tea, fruit juice, vegetable juice and even soup, and is typically recommended in plentiful amounts. A poor diet can have an injurious impact on health, causing deficiency diseases such as scurvy and kwashiorkor; health-threatening conditions like obesity and metabolic syndrome; and such common chronic systemic diseases as cardiovascular disease and diabetes.
2. Uncommon food groups In Italy, food pyramids include a half-serving of wine and beer. 3. Eating disorder Eating disorders refer to a group of conditions defined by abnormal eating habits that may involve either insufficient or excessive food consumption. Eating disorders like anorexia, bulimia, obesity and others, are increasing all over the world among both men and women. Causes The exact cause of Eating Disorders is unknown. However, it is believed to be due to a combination of biological, psychological and/or environmental abnormalities.
Peer pressure Teens tend to be concerned with how they appear in their social groups, therefore undergoing pressure to be “accepted”, and this pressure may include weight-control behavior. Child maltreatment Child abuse which encompasses physical, psychological and sexual abuse, as well as neglect has been shown by innumerable studies to be a precipitating factor in a wide variety of psychiatric disorders, including eating disorders, in search of some form of comfort. Social isolation
Social isolation has been shown to have a negative effect on an individuals’ physical and emotional well-being. Those that are socially isolated have a higher mortality rate in general as compared to individuals that have established social relationships. Social isolation can be inherently stressful, depressing and anxiety provoking. In an attempt to ameliorate these distressful feelings an individual may engage in emotional eating in which food serves as a source of comfort. Parental influence The food education and habits provided by parents affect children directly.
Parents with eating disorder can pass on flawed and potentially dangerous habits to their developing child, because children learn by imitation, they can be placed at significant risk when their parents are suffering from an eating disorder. Peer pressure Social Pressure ((((( N APANHEII ESSA CENA) Cultural pressure There is an unrealistic stereotype of what constitutes beauty and the ideal body type as portrayed by the media, fashion and entertainment industries. a) Anorexia Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by excessive food restriction and irrational fear of gaining weight, and a distorted body self-perception.
It typically involves excessive weight loss. Anorexia nervosa usually develops during adolescence and early adulthood. b) Bulimia Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by binge eating and purging or consuming a large amount of food in a short amount of time, followed by an attempt to rid oneself of the food consumed, (purging). Typically by vomiting, taking a laxative or diuretic and/or excessive exercise and commonly accompanied with fasting over an extended period of time. 4. How to Improve Your Diet for Teens 1- Do not eat when you are not hungry!
Boredom and depression can lead a person to eating things that will lead to weight gain. If you are bored, try reading a book, playing a sport, or talking to friends. Try to avoid your kitchen if you are home all day. Make sure there is no food in sight or you will get cravings. Study, if possible. 2- If you get the need to crunch or chew food when you are not hungry, eat something low in calories such as fruit or gum. Ask someone like a parent to stop you from over-eating. 3- Drink at least 4 to 8 glasses of water a day, depending on how active you are, and how hot it is at your location.
It curbs hunger, makes you feel better and makes your skin glow! 4- Check food labels. Eat foods that are low in calories and carbohydrates. Although carbohydrates can help you think better and they fuel the nervous system and power fat metabolism. Avoid saturated and trans fat (which leads to weight gain). Eat foods that have vitamins and minerals in them. Protein, fiber, and iron are all good for you. If you can’t read an ingredient or if you’ve never heard of it, most likely it is not good for you. Do not go under 1200 calories a day for an extended period. 5- Know how to respond to binges.
If you have a pig-out and want to burn off the calories you just consumed, go for a brisk walk or any other physical activity. Also, eat a nutritious meal after a pig-out. Alternatively, if you are tempted to binge, try eating something nutritious beforehand. By the time you finish this initial food, you may change your mind. 6- Always eat a good, hearty breakfast! Do not think that skipping breakfast will make you lose weight! In fact, eating breakfast kick-starts your metabolism, which leads to more weight loss. Breakfast will also help you to concentrate and eat less throughout the day.
7- Eat your dinner earlier (in between 4:30 and 6:30) so that you can burn off some of the calories you consumed. 8- Fill up half your plate with veggies. 9- Limit your intake on sweets. Too much isn’t good for you but a little once in a while is okay. 10- Avoid fast food and junk food (French fries, pizza, etc. ) It’s only okay once in a while, but if you keep buying junk food, learn to overcome it 11- Eat only until you are satisfied. Do not over stuff yourself. If you are given a ton of food on your plate, don’t feel obligated to eat it all. 12- Try to avoid stress or learn to deal with it.
Stress will cause pig-outs. 13- Try to replace things you usually eat with something healthier. If you’re reaching for a handful of chips, force yourself to stop, and go grab an apple instead. (Note: this can be easier said than done. ) 14- Avoid large quantities of sugar. Avoid eating chocolate and chips first thing in the morning. This can make you lose your concentration and you won’t be able to concentrate at school. And you may get headaches. 15- Every time you go to put something in your body, ask yourself: “Is this going to improve my health, or harm it?
” If the answer is the second one, you know what to do. 16- You should also ask yourself WHY you are eating something before you eat it. If the answer isn’t “It’s time for lunch/dinner/breakfast and I’m hungry,” PUT IT BACK. 17- If you have a very sugary diet, you may get a Sugar Withdrawal Headache. These are tough to deal with and hurt a lot, so if you can’t ignore it, carry a single candy bar in with you. Eat a small bit it’ll help. 18 – Salads are healthy and with the proper dressings and toppings of your choice, taste great. Toppings should be low-fat and examples are grated cheese, bacon, and diced eggs.
5. Eating Disorder Treatment There are certain things that parents can do to decrease the likelihood that their child will get an eating disorder. First, parents have to help their children develop a proper appreciation for hunger. This means that they should only give their children food when they are actually hungry. Food (or the lack thereof) should never be used as a reward or punishment. Parents should not compel their child to eat more if the child is full. Parents should be aware that the foundation for an eating disorder can take shape as early as the first year of a child’s life.