Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are defined as syntheticderivatives of the endogenous sex hormone testosterone. These compounds havebeen clinically used to treat many diseases as hypogonadism, anemia, andprotein deficiency as well as severe weight loss associated with chronicdiseases (Kurling-Kailanto et al., 2010). AAS are also one of the most commonly useddrugs among athletes to improve physical performance, lean body mass, musclesize and strength (Sinha-Hikim et al., 2002; Evans, 2004; Kanayama et al.,2010). Anabolic androgenicsteroids are often abused by competing athletes desiring rapid increase inmuscle mass and non-athletes aiming to improve their personal appearance (Angellet al., 2012).
The abuse of AAS may be a serious problem all over the worldand during the past 2 decades the number of AAS users increased more than 2000%in the world (Arazi et al., 2017). According to the National Institute on DrugAbuse, it was reported that nandrolone is one of the most used anabolicderivative of testosterone, because of its moderate androgenic potentialassociated with the good anabolic properties (Andreato et al., 2013). Previous studies reportedmany serious side effects resulted from abusing these anabolic drugs which includecardiovascular disorder which can lead to sudden death, acute hepatitis, jaundice,testicular dysfunction with subsequent infertility, hypertension and behavioraldisorders (Al-Kennany & Al-Hamdany, 2014).
Moreover, reduction ofimmune cell number and function were also reported (Marshall-Gradisnik etal., 2009). Evidence of side effects affecting the kidney and the renalfunction is sporadically emerging from clinical reports of renal disordersamong AASs users, especially with high doses and prolonged use (Daher etal., 2009; Herlitz et al.
, 2010). Survey of literaturerevealed that diets rich in vegetables and fruits are associated with reduced riskof various diseases. The main role of these phytonutrients is not onlyproviding the body with fibers, indoles and phenols but also reducing oxidativestress, as they contain natural nutrient antioxidants like carotenoids,flvanoids, vitamin C, vitamin A and vitamin E (Singh et al., 2012). Lycopene is consideredthe most prevalent antioxidant carotenoid in the Western diet.
It is present intomatoes, watermelon, pink grapefruit and several other red fruits (Story etal., 2010). Consumption of tomatoes or tomato products is usually associatedwith increased lycopene blood levels and reduced oxidative damage of lipids,proteins, and DNA (Palabiyik et al., 2017). Recent studies have reportedthat the supplementation of lycopene rich diets is associated with reduced riskof many chronic diseases, cancer, heart diseases, a reduction in blood pressure,diabetes, ageing and other degenerative diseases in humans (El-Gerbed,2014). Considering that anabolicsteroids are widely used in humans to improve athletic performance and knowingthat their overuse may cause lesions in many organs, we have designed this researchto study the histological changes in the kidney of adult male albino rats underthe effect of anabolic steroid (nandrolone decanoate) and role of lycopene inalleviating these changes.