An acceptable definition of cloning is the act of making an identical copy or in scientific terms is the reproduction of a fragment of DNA places in an organism’s so that there is enough to analyze or use in protein production. There are two types of cloning they are therapeutic cloning which is theproduction of embryonic stem cells for the use of replacing or repairing damaged tissues or organs. The other type is reproductive cloning. Reproductive cloning is cloning of an organisms with the goal of planting the blastula produced by the technique into the uterus of an adult female and thus creating a new organism. In other words it is cloning an individualanimal, plant, or single-celled life form with the goal of planning the embryo that is in an early stage of development when it is a hollow ball of cells produced by this technique into the uterus of an adult female and thus creating a new animal, plant, or single-celled life form.
Embryonic stem cell research is the study of cells obtained from an embryo when they are a few days old. These cell have the ability to become any cell in the human body. Human cloning has been banned in seven state in the US: Arkansas, Iowa, Michigan, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, and Virginia, but officially, embryonic stem cell research, therapeutic cloning, and reproductive cloning are legal as there is currently no federal regulation orpolicies for cloning. Reproductive and therapeutic cloning are specifically not federally funded, but embryonic stem cell research is federally funded if these cell lines (A cell culture developed from a single cell and therefore consisting of cells with a uniform genetic makeup) were created before august 9, 2001. Private industry research isn’t affected by these policies and is allowed to continue with the creation of new stem cell lines. Here in Wisconsin we passed a bill in 2001 that is still in effect today know as Assemble bill 736. This bill prohibits human cloning; attempting to perform human cloning or transferring or acquiring a human embryo produced by human cloning or any cell tissue, or product derived from such an embryo. Around the world more than 30 countries have formally banned human cloning for reproductive purposes.
Some European countries, including France, Germany, and switzerland have banned cloning of human embryos for reproductive or therapeutic purposes. England, singapore, Sweden, China, and Israel allow cloning for research, but not for reproductivepurposes. Some argue that reproductive cloning would get rid of the sense of a person’s individuality and being the only one of his/her kind. This would violate the widely held beliefs about human individuality and freedom. Also reproductive cloning is unsafe.
About 95% of mammalian cloning experiments have resulted miscarriages, stillbirths, and life-threatening anomalies. Some believe no clones are fully healthy. They believe that if you take genes from an adult and make a clone using those genes then when the baby is born the genes are already as old as the adult who let you use his/her genes.
Some fear that if reproductive cloning ispermitted and gets accepted what other dangerous applications of genetic engineering technology could be permitted and accepted. Others say that reproductive cloning can provide genetically related children for people who cannot be helped by other fertility treatments. For example a woman who conceive. One of the biggest arguments in favor of reproductive cloning is that cloning is a reproductive right, and should be allowed once it is judged to be no less safe than natural reproduction. There are so many risks to reproductive cloning like miscarriages, stillbirths, diseases, evan death of both mother and child, but all of those risks are seen in natural reproduction as well. Who is to say that natural reproduction is safer than reproductive cloning.
Arguments against embryonic stem cell research are mostly based on that it involves killing the embryo while it is still in the first stages of being formed. The reason for this is because some people believe that once a baby is conceived it is considered a person/baby and by killing the embryo they kill the person/baby. It is widely accepted that killing a person is immoral and should not be accepted. The benefits to embryonic stem cell research could be endless for the medical field. The biggest reason people want to use embryonic stem cell research is that the stemcell scientist collect can be made into almost any gene in a body.
Do to this fact stem cells can help with repairing organs or skin tissue. Stem cells can also help cure diseases that are otherwise incurable. Human growth and cell development can also be learned for this research.