Allium the Latin word given to garlic, a floweringplant with hundreds of separate species;which many have been gathered through human history, One of the species belongto this (related group of living things) is the Allium sativum L. Also known asthe garlic, which is from onion family Alliaceae, shallot, leek, chive, andrakkyo. The bulb called cloves with clear covering. They can easily grow indifferent conditions from dry, well-drained mineral-based soil to moist organicsoil, most grow in sunny locations but a number also grow in forests, or evenin swap water areas.Allium sativum L. consist of sulfur containing compoundssuch as allicin, alliin, dially disulfide, dithiin and Sallylcysteine.
Theselarge number of sulfur compounds responsible for the smell and taste of garlic.Dially disulfide is most essential compound which contribute in distinct andsharp odor in the garlic. Allicin gives the tartness of the raw garlic and itis also a powerful antibiotic and antifungal compound, allicin majorly servesas anti-inflammatory effect. Garlic contains essential oil, which is obtained bythe process of steam distillation of the garlic cloves using n-hexane assolvent. Essential garlic oil comprises of range of sulfide such as diallydisulfide and dilly trisulfide. During the processing allicin is reduced fromthe oil. Commercially available garlic oil capsules generally contain vegetableoil and a little portion of garlic essential oil because of the pungent odors.
Garlicoil has plentiful uses in the world today, its uses include the flavouring incuisine like salads, and sauces. The garlic oil can lower and treated high bloodpressure if regularly consume, prevention from cardiovascular disease. Garlicoil is an efficient anti-viral, antibiotic, anti-fungal agent, which can use inprevention from diarrhea, cough and nausea. Some studies have found resultsthat it can also fight against cancer.Sampling before testing done and removal of transparentcovering of garlic was removed manually and sun-dried for two weeks. Powderedthe dry garlic cloves, then sieved and stored in a covered plastic container.The physiochemical analyses were carried out in triplication.
The extraction ofgarlic oil was accomplished with a soxhlet extractor using n-hexane (boilingpoint of 40ºC – 60ºC) for six hours. The oil obtained under reduced temperatureand pressure and refluxing at 70ºC so the removal of solvent from extracted oilproduct and recover solvent can be reused. The garlic oil was stored in freezerat 2ºC for succeeding physicochemical analyses.They obtained chemical analysis which can predictoil quality such as peroxide value, iodine value, saponification value, freefatty acid value, acid value by using standard methods. They also interpretedphysical parameters of garlic oil, such color which is light yellow, specificgravity lower than water 0.9, odor pungent due to allicin and oil yield is22.5%.
From chemical analysis of garlic oil they comparetheir results with different oil like shea butter, cotton seed oil. Peroxidevalue tells deterioration of oil due to oxidation. The low peroxide value 2.50± 0.50% found from garlic oil when compared to palm kernel oil 3.58% indicatesthat the oil can be kept for a very long period of time. Acid value: The acidvalue 4.
18 ± 0.01mgKOH/g obtained from the oil is low when compared to Sheanutbutter oil 10.3mgKOH/g and high when compared to 2.39 ± 0.065mgKOH/g, forcastor oil, thus the higher the acid value of an oil, the lower its storagequality and vice-versa. It shows that the garlic oil have an tremendous storagequality when compared to that of Sheanut butter oil.
Free fatty acid (oleicacid), determine the appropriateness of the oil for edibility or industrialuses. The free fatty acid value is 2.10 ± 0.05% which is low when compared tothe Hyptus spicigera seed oil 3.50%, its shows that it is good for eating.Iodine value determines the proportion of unsaturated acid or fat and oilpresent, but the test determines the amount of iodine absorbed per gram ofsample. The determination of iodine value determines the reaction of the doublebonds with halogen.
The iodine value 12.69 ± 0.05g/100g which was gained fromthe oil is low when compared to 16.
0g/100g Tiger nut oil. The oil shows quite degreeof unsaturated fatty acid which indicates that the oil is suitable for utilization.They concluded fromresults that garlic oil indicated good quality, chemical analyses presentedsaponification value, peroxide value, acid value, free fatty acid and Iodinevalues that fell within the range of those acceptable as having good potentialfor soap production and with an tremendous storage property.