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Since the first airport was created, airport and in-flight security have been issues of serious concern for the U. S. Government, as well as other governments around the world. The Government, which has turned to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to secure airports, has passed and redone many bills and acts trying to provide the safest and most efficient form of airport security.Before the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 security in airports was considered anything but excellent, but for the most part did the job that was expected of them, making sure that people who boarded the planes did not have weapons or that no bombs made it onto the airplane. It was also on this horrendous day that the United States public took serious concern over the nation’s airport security. September 11th changed the world’s attitude on airport security, and how important of a concern the nation’s airport security was and will continue to be.The terrorist attacks also showed the entire world how easily the old system was to manipulate, and how much improvements airports needed before they could be truly considered secure.

In the early 60’s airport security wasn’t even an issue. Nothing was checked going on to the plane. Back then people felt secure, and safe. But as time went on, people started to threaten others on board.

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Sometimes they would even hold passengers and even the flight crew hostage. According to a CNN TV Show “Airline Security Special Report” (Turney, Bishop & Fitzgerald, 2004) In 1983, a plane was hijacked.Except in this high jacking, the highjacker got violent. After this incident happened, all carryon baggage was to be scanned and checked. This made the flyers feel a lot safer, and for a while stopped the high jacking. As time went on though, the highjackings got more sophisticated and more violent. Before September 11, 2001 people felt Carpenter 3 safe to fly, but then we found out how easy it was for the highjackers to get the weapons on the plane.

Immediately following the attacks on the World Trade Center, the aviation world was rather frantic.The first order of business was the shutting down of all major airports in the United States to ensure no further terrorist attacks could take place. Congress and executives from airline companies were frantically searching for a way to create a secure plan for the nation’s airport security. After a few days of being shut down, the airports were reopened with a new sense for needed security. Once the airports were reopened, it was obvious that the FAA had two major problems to deal with, the first problem being that security needed to be increased immediately and the second was that people now had this new found fear of flying.

This reaction brought up several immediate changes to the nation’s airports. Changes had to happen and they had to happen quickly. “Given the economic impact of airport delays, in particular the impact on business travelers and potential revenue from the source, it is imperative that authorities and regulators consider the outcomes and effectiveness of implementing security measures, such as armed pilots, secured cockpits, baggage matching, electronic scanning, passenger searches, and sniffer devices. Significant changes in security measures have been ongoing at major airports in the United States over the past year.

Some of these changes represent knee-jerk reactions to 9/11. Other changes had long been planned for implementation as technology advanced. ” (Turney, Bishop & Fitzgerald, 2004) The government administered studies of the flight crews and cabin crews to determine their perceptions about the relative importance of security measures. “A survey was developed through a focus group of crew members whose work enabled them to observe and interact with Carpenter 4 security measures on a daily or regular basis. Results of the nearly 100 responses indicate some significant concerns about the importance of several security devices and measures.

(Turney, Bishop & Fitzgerald, 2004) The most visible changes to boost airport securities may be on the airplanes themselves. Many planes have installed bulletproof, locked cockpit doors to secure the pilot and crew from the rest of the plane. Increased securities at airports have come along more slowly. The Transportation Security Administration has been unable to fully staff airports with federal screeners, have delayed mandatory baggage screening deadlines multiple times, and have overrun a $350 million budget (TSA).The only way that airlines will be able to recover from the massive economic setbacks they have suffered as a result of the attack is to make an attempt to combine customer service and security. “September 11, 2001, led to renewed emphasis on airport security in the United States. Before the tragedy, government policy led to a suboptimal level of security. The fundamental problem was not simply the use of private security firms, but rather the reliance on airline financing and poor Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) oversight.

After 9/11, a federalized security system was put into place. The current system of tightened security is substantially more costly and should be evaluated in terms of its cost-effectiveness compared to a public approach. ” (Seidenstat, 2004) “An immediate change that has, and will continue to be used is the implementation of the United States National Guard at all airports.

This became official on September 27, 2001 as President George W. Bush ordered that the National Guard help secure all of the nations 420 commercial airports.The National Guard at the airports is responsible for providing security, correcting employee agents who are doing poor inspections, and resolving any issues with Carpenter 5 passengers. ” (Seidenstat, 2004) Perhaps, for nothing more than intimidation reasons, the National Guard on duty wears or her standard military issues uniform, and is armed with a loaded nine millimeter guns in their pistol belts. “There is less likely to be an incident when people see the National Guard with loaded guns,” said specialist Michael St. John of the United States National Guard. “It also gives others a sense of security in the airports.

(Seidenstat, 2004) Not only did the United States have to be on the lookout for terrorists after September 11, 2001, but they also had to be on the lookout for others that either weren’t doing their job properly. “On November 16, 2001 congress sent a bill to President Bush that is the most impressive aviation security bill in years. The bill ordered that all security screeners be employed by the federal government within the year, and that the systems be in tact for three straight years from the starting date.

The screeners have come under scrutiny not only because the attacks ofSeptember 11, but also because several agencies have reported sneaking knives and other harmful objects onto planes after the deadly attacks. The screeners prior to this bill were hired by the airlines as minimum wage employees with very few added benefits. This bill will make the employees federal workers, which would increase their pay, but more importantly make them more apt to do their job. ” (Seidenstat, 2004) Due to heightened security, passengers had to endure grueling feats when checking in at the airports. The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) had some advice to give to airline passengers post 9/11. In case you thought you finally had the airport security drill down pat, the Transportation Security Administration is now advising passengers to place their shoes Carpenter 6 directly on the X-ray machine belt and not just in a bin.

The change allows screeners to get a clearer look at suspect footwear. ” (Clark & Yancy, 2009) Because of the heightened security, not just the passengers were affected. This also took quite a toll on airline employees as well. They want to ensure that people get through airport security as fast as possible.Not only do passengers have to take nearly all of their clothes and shoes off, they had to make sure everything they brought with them was scanned and cleared for them to bring along. “Long lines of passengers have an effect on the speed with which airport security screeners do certain aspects of their jobs, according to a study by researchers in the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences at the University at Buffalo. The study’s findings demonstrate empirically for the first time those security screeners do speed up when lines are long, but only when inspecting laptop computers.

While the effect of long lines seems to be small, the researchers say, the fact that it exists at all has potential relevance for queues of all kinds, including supermarket checkouts, tollbooths, and border crossings. The study found that the security screeners did not change their behavior regardless of how long the lines were when inspecting carry-on bags or plastic bins for overcoats, keys, and other accessories. At a mid-sized airport, researchers studied the correlations between how long lines were and how long personnel took to inspect each type of item. If you’re going to have a speed-up anywhere, it’s probably safest to have it with laptops because that’s a more difficult item to hide something in,” said study co-author Rajan Batta, Ph. D.

, professor of industrial and systems engineering. “We didn’t see a speed up with carry-on bags when the lines were long, so that’s reassuring,” he said. The researchers, an interdisciplinary group of industrial engineers, were interested in finding out if there is a speed accuracy tradeoff in security screening when lines are long. The researchers Carpenter 7 ay that the study has implications for queuing theory, which, until now, has not looked specifically at how servers may change their behavior when lines of customers get very long. In related work, the researchers have been able to predict the amount of time passengers will typically spend waiting in airline security queues.

” (Industrial Engineer: IE, 2008) Another issue that reared its ugly face at the United States after the horrendous events on September 11, 2001 was risk profiling. ” A key distinction needs to be made between formal and informal risk profiling.It is usually assumed that formal risk profiling, based on statistical data, provides an optimal means of prediction and thus of detecting high-risk individuals or situations. However, it must be recognized that formal profiles are based extensively on informal profiles – those built upon the experience and working cultures of security-related officials.

Formal profiles are thus prone to the same errors and tend to produce self-fulfilling prophecies, resulting in both errors of fact and discriminatory consequences for false-positive cases.All profiles, however, are fraught with problems, perhaps the most obvious and significant being that the targets of interdiction readily become aware of them and modify their operations to incorporate activities and/or individuals that do not fit existing profiles. Consequently, totally risk-based security, ironically, may become less effective than alternatives such as randomly assigned focused interdictions. ” (O’Malley, 2006) What we’re dealing with right now is just the beginning.

Things are only going to continue to get worse and terrorists are going to test us and see how we react in the face of danger.This far we’ve proven to be a worth adversary, but as technology evolves there is no telling where this may lead us. Homeland Security is trying to get a handle on airport security as much as possible. People may complain that they have to basically strip down while going Carpenter 8 through security to get on an airplane or they might make a fuss because the lines going through security takes much longer than it used to, but in the end isn’t it all worth the extra few minutes to ensure your safety?Homeland security’s plans and procedures have been in the works for the last eight years, but as technology improves, so will security in airports and on airplanes. We are much more aware of the threat of terrorist attacks and our processes now try to implement the best level of security possible. Airlines want the passengers and airline employees to feel as safe as possible.

We have to take this process one step at a time and ensure that everything is done to standard with no exceptions. Carpenter 9 References Airport Security Afoot. (2006). Communications of the ACM, 49(8), 9-9, 1/4p. Clark, J. & Bean Yancey, K. (2008, May 22).

TSA Gives New Advice for Airport Security. USA Today. Laptops Speed Through Security. (2008). Industrial Engineer: IE, 40(2), 15-15, 1/2p.

O’Malley, P. (2006). Risks, Ethics, And Airport Security. Canadian Journal of Criminology & Criminal Justice, 48(3), 413-421, 9p. Seidenstat, P.

(2004). Terrorism, Airport Security, And the Private Sector. Review of Policy Research, 21(3), 275-291. Transportation Security Administration [Fact Sheet]. (n. d. ).

In TSA Transportation Security Administration/ Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved March 3, 2011, from http://www. tsa. gov/

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