Aik Ho Tan SID: 3032 107 131Music 26ACProfessor: TamaraRoberts GSI: Andrew SnyderQuestion 1The musical genre of “Addictive” is hip hop. It has a stablerhythm and a slow tempo with underlying beats played by drums. This song alsohas a dense texture as “call and response” is very distinct and differentvoices tend to overlap with the lead voice. The sample from “Thoda Resham LagtaHai” is incorporated in “Addictive” in such a way that it is the backgroundvocals that act to support the main singer, Truth Hurts. The sample alsocontributes to most of the sonic components of “Addictive”. Furthermore, thewhole musical video features belly dance by both the singer and performers.
Bynot crediting the third world artists and sampling the Hindi-song withoutseeking permission, I believe this is black appropriation of Indian images andmusic. First of all, as the producer of “Addictive”, DJ Quik does notseek the permission to sample the instrumental track of the Hindi-song, “ThodaResham Lagta Hai”. He lifts four minutes of the original recording by an Indianartist called Lata Mangeshkar. DJ Quik and other artists of “Addictive” such asDr. Dre, Truth Hurts, and Rakim then superimpose their own lyrics and drumtrack over the beat. No only does DJ Quik not not seek the permission, but heis also not the artist directly working for this Hindi musical piece. As anoutsider, he does not know the content and meaning of this Hindi-song.
Thisirresponsible action undoubtedly shows that the American artists and labelsimply take it for granted that Hindi music can be used by them at will, andthey do not need to credit and pay for.Secondly, the objectionable content of “Addictive” most likelymisrepresents and defames the Indian artist. The vulgar and lewd lyrics of”Addictive,” in which Truth sings the lines “He makes me scream” and “I like itrough,” are most probably offensive to some Indian’s religious and culturalsensibilities.
As an iconic voice to the hollywood genre, the Indian artist’simage and character are impacted negatively and misrepresented with herassociation of the song “Addictive”. To rectify the situation, the songwriter and producers of”Addictive” should have provided appropriate musical credit and recognition tothe Indian artists and producers. Besides, they should have officially obtainedthe permission and considered a collaboration with the Indian artists to producea unique music genre that has a larger international market with the essence oftwo different cultures. In my opinion, copyright infringement case is the bestway to address the questions of appropriation. Not only does it deter artistsfrom copying others’ work without giving proper credit, but it also encouragesartists to seek permission and collaboration amongst themselves to promotecreativity. As a conclusion, my verdict is Lahiri and Saregama havethe rights to receive credits for the sample of “Thoda Resham Lagta Hai” andclaim for remuneration. This issue is neither a cultural sharing norcollaboration, but black appropriation of Indian images and music. The Americanartists and label fail to credit the Indian artists, and they sample the Hindi-songwithout seeking permission.
In addition, the objectionable content of”Addictive” undeniably defames and misrepresents the Indian artist. Question 3According to UNESCO.org, migration is the “crossing of theboundary of a political or administrative unit for a certain minimum period oftime. It includes the movement of refugees, displaced persons, uprooted peopleas well as economic migrants.” Besides, internal migration refers to themovement from one place to another within the country. On the other hand,international migration is a territorial relocation of people between thecountries. Throughout the U.
S. musical history, I propose the Great Migration,which occurred between 1916 and 1970 as an important musical influenceespecially on blues and jazz. The Great Migration was the relocation of around six millionAfrican-Americans out of the rural Southern U.S. to the urban West, Midwest,and Northeast. As a consequence, African-American voters become a significantforce in the politics. In the context of social impacts, the large scale ofmigration exacerbates existing social tensions in the country.
However,migrants help transform the American society and culture by adding in thevalues of diversity.Having escaped from the racism of the northern and southernstates, African-Americans are then inspired by various forms of creativity.During the 1920s and 1930s, the Harlem Renaissance, which is resulted in theGreat Migration played a major influence on blues music.To escape racialdiscrimination, influential blues singers namely Chester Burnett and MuddyWaters migrated from Mississippi to Chicago. As a result, Mississippi bluesmusic style greatly impacts the Chicago blues. This blues music style can bedistinguished by the use of harmonica, bass, electric guitar, drums, and arhythm section.
Furthermore, blues shifts from being a rural country music tobeing played in clubs and modern places. As the Great Migration continues tounfold, the blues tempos and the song lyrics become vibrant and upbeat asAfrican-Americans attain freedom and inspiration in northern cities.In addition, the Great Migration has significantly impacted jazzmusic.
Since the migration leads to employment and prosperity forAfrican-Americans, more people can afford to buy records and enjoy music.Subsequently, this has substantially intensified the growth and expansion ofjazz music across the American society. Besides, more jazz musicians have theopportunity to receive a better education and this leads to an improvement and growthin their musical talents. Migration undoubtedly paves the way for thedevelopment and creation of music, and new cultures and forms of jazz musichave emerged.
As a conclusion, the Great Migration is an important historicalmoment when migration has been impactful. It has also been an importantinfluence throughout U.S. musical history, especially on blues and jazz. AsMartin Luther King said, “Jazz speaks for life.
The blues tell the story oflife’s difficulties — and, if you think for a moment, you realize that theytake the hardest realities of life and put them into music, only to come outwith some new hope or sense of triumph. This is triumphant music.” Thesemusical genres and development undoubtedly serve as support forAfrican-Americans. They have then become a fundamental part of American popularmusic. Question 6During the late 1940s and early 1950s, rock and roll is a popularmusic genre that originates in the United States. It evolves fromAfrican-American musical styles namely jazz, blues, gospel, rhythm, and countrymusic.
The saxophone or piano is seen to be the main instrument in the earlieststyle. However, guitar gradually becomes the lead instrument in the late 1950s.I believe the inclusion of rock and roll in this course would be a significantaddition because of its powerful impacts across the politics, social andlifestyle on American society.
Beyond merely a musical style, rock and roll has been influencedby various types of musical styles and subsequently, it has paved the way forself-expression, originality, and free thought. Rock and roll allows artists toexpress their thoughts on political issues and to influence the government.Rock and roll artists are also able to produce music that would essentiallyunify people from different backgrounds, religions, races, andsocio-economic statuses through constant interaction in the community.Besides that, it would be valuable to include rock and roll as oneof the genres in the “protest, politics, and cultural revival” materials ofthis class because it emerges at the beginning of the civil rights movement.Not only does rock and roll most probably pave the way for desegregation, butit also helps both white American and African-American teenagers to identifythemselves. Rock and roll also establishes a new form of music that encouragesracial collaboration and shared experience. In addition, rock and roll breaks the boundaries by expressingsentiments that people are actually feeling but they do not openly discussabout.
In the early rock and roll songs, they deal with topics such as fashionand school. Nevertheless, other themes like sex that is generally consideredtaboo begins to emerge in rock and roll music. Most of the rock and roll lyricsnarrate incidents that listeners could most probably relate to. One of the most famous and influential artists from therock and roll genre is Elvis Presley, who is also known as “The King of Rockand Roll”.
His music is deeply influenced by African- American blues andChristian gospel. He has an remarkable cultural impact on the American societyas his dance moves, clothing, and recordings are regarded as representations ofrock and roll. Elvis is one of the few rock and roll artists who is stillacknowledged and respected by the American society today.
Some of the audiencebelieve that Elvis never died and they believe that if it is not for artistlike Elvis that the social scene between whites and blacks would never haveconsolidated. As a conclusion, the inclusion of rock and roll in thiscourse would be a valuable addition because of its powerful impacts on theAmerican society. Besides paving the way for self-expression, originality, andfree thought, it is also considered as the herald of desegregation.Furthermore, rock and roll breaks the boundaries by expressing sentiments thatpeople are actually feeling but they do not openly discuss about.
Mostimportant, it has produced influential artists such as Elvis Presley who has aremarkable cultural impact on the American society and is still respected bythe American society today.