African American boys are suspended andexpelled at a higher rate than their white counterparts. Minority students only make up seventeenpercent of students enrolled in public schools but they account for thirty-twopercent of all out-of-school suspensions. (Losen & Martinez, 2013;Gottfredson, 2001).
Studies also show that students who experience the mostsevere forms of school discipline are also the individuals that are most likelyto enter the criminal justice system as adults. (Payne & Welch, 2010). In addition, numerous researchers have foundcorrelations between race of a student and the intensity of the punishment theyreceive for similar crimes. Blackstudents receive punitive treatment more frequently than white students (Payne& Welch, 2010; Kupchk & Ellis, 2009).
Transformational leaders work with theirteams to create a vision of change and work with their teams to create thatchange in their organization (REFERENCE). Many studies have shown a disproportionate Problem Statement Discipline GapPurposeThe purpose ofthis quantitative study study is to address principal leadership style and theeffect on the discipline and suspension of African American boys. In this study, suspension data will be used totest the hypothesis that transformational school leaders positively affect thesuspension rates for African American boys in the Inland Empire. Theoretical Framework Critical race theory studies many of thesame issues as traditional civil liberties study, but puts these issues intothe perspective of economics, history, and context (Delgado & Stefancic,2001). Although many believe that intuitionsin the United States, such as the public school system, are colorblind, thisversion of the truth allows academics and practitioners to address only themost egregious racial harms. It is, inreality, the practices and institutions in the United States that keepminorities in subordinate positions (Delgado & Stefancic, 2001).
This study is conducted in this framework. Transformational LeadershipTheoryResearch Questions Backgroundabout discipline and leadership style hereRQ1:What is the risk ratio for out of school suspensions of African American malesto white students in participating public school districts in the Inland Empire?RQ2:Does a relationship exist between principal’s leadership style as measured bythe Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and the rate of suspension for AfricanAmerican males in public schools.H02:There is no statistically significant relationship between principal’sleadership styles and the rate of suspension for African American males inpublic schools.Ha2:There is a statistically significant relationship between principal’sleadership styles and the rate of suspension for African American males inpublic schools.Significanceof the StudyAs evidence mounts of the disparity ofsuspensions and punitive consequences for young men of color in our schools, itis important that possible causes of this disparity are identified so schoolleaders can build solutions. This studywill add to the body of knowledge in looking at the relationship between schoolleadership and the disproportionate number of suspensions of African Americanyouth. Studies in the body of literature note the relationship, but data on thecorrelations to provide empirical evidence do not exist.
School leaders will use the results fromthis study to inform their decisions on how to implement discipline proceduresin their schools. They will better beable to determine discipline policies based on the relationship between schoolsecurity and student discipline.District leaders will use the resultsfrom this study to aide them in hiring decisions when hiring leaders forsecondary schools.
To create a more justschool system, transformational leaders need to be in place at the site levelin school districts.DefinitionsSchoolResource Officer (SRO) – Sworn public safety officer who receives extratraining to work in public schools. Thisofficer is a member of the local police force and not an employee of the schooldistrict. Out-of-SchoolSuspension – Punishment requiring student to refrain from attending school andall school related functions.Expulsion– Punishment requiring students not to attend the school or district from whichthey are expelled from for one year. Thestudent and their parents are still required to find a school that will takethem based on compulsory school attendance laws.PBIS– Positive Behavior Intervention System. These systems rely on the positive interactions of staff and students todecrease behavior and discipline issues in schools.
RestorativeJustice – A strategy used in schools that allows students who break rules atschool to apologize to the people affected and make right the wrong caused bytheir actions.TransformationalLeadership – Limitationsof StudyDelimitations of StudySummaryAfrican American students are suspendedat a disproportionate rate compared to their white counterparts in US publicschools. This phenomenon has beendocumented in a number of studies, but the literature is lacking in research asto why this phenomenon exists (Payne & Welch, 2010;Kupchik & Ellis, 2011). Chapter 2: LiteratureReviewThe purpose of this quantitative study isto address principal leadership style and the effect on the discipline andsuspension of African American boys. In this study, suspension data will beused to test the hypothesis that transformational school leaders positivelyaffect the suspension rates for African American boys in the InlandEmpire. This literature review will cover racerelations in schools, race and suspension in US schools, transformationalleadership, and the effect of transformational leaders on schools. Understanding of these themes adds to theunderstanding of the problem of disproportionate suspension in relation to the heleadership style of the principal.
Underthe umbrella of the critical race theory this issue is in the context ofeconomic and social norms. Keywords searched for this literaturereview included school security, suspensions, school resource officers,discipline procedures, security measures, school police, school discipline,transformational leadership, school principal and school leader. The databasesused in this literature search were ERIC, EBSCO, SOCIndex, Academic SearchPremiere, Sage Journals, and PsycBook.Chapter Three: MethodologyShort synopsis of problem statementhereThe purpose of this mixed methods studyis to address principal leadership style and the effect on the discipline andsuspension of African American boys.
Anexplanatory parallel mixed methods design will be used. In this study, suspension data will be usedto test the hypothesis that transformational school leaders positively affectthe suspension rates for African American boys in the Inland Empire. The reason for collecting both quantitativeand qualitative data is to explain the results of our quantitative data ofprincipal leadership style and suspension rates of African American boys.Research Questions and Hypothesis Thestudy utilized the following research questions and hypothesis to guide theinvestigative process:· RQ1: What is the risk ratio for out of schoolsuspensions of African American males to white students in participating publicschool districts in the Inland Empire?· RQ2: Does a relationship exist betweenprincipal’s leadership style as measured by the Multifactor LeadershipQuestionnaire and the rate of suspension for African American males in publicschools.· H02: There is no statisticallysignificant relationship between principal’s leadership styles and the rate ofsuspension for African American males in public schools.
· Ha2: There is a statisticallysignificant relationship between principal’s leadership styles and the rate ofsuspension for African American males in public schools.Research Design Population and Sample This study was conducted inRiverside and San Bernardino county school districts in SouthernCalifornia. The combined counties ofRiverside and San Bernardino make up the Inland Empire.
Riverside County has XX secondary schools and San BernardinoCounty has XXsecondary schools (REFERENCE).The demographics of the school leaders in this geographic area are: XX are female, XX are White, XX are African American, XX have a Master’s degreeand XX have aDoctorate degree (REFERENCE). School’s with an African Americanpopulation of more than 85% were excluded from this study. When the racial group of interest makes up amajority of the population of the school it is not possible to get risk ratiosfor a racial composition due to the lack of disproportionality (Kessinger,2015). Schools that did not reportsuspensions for African American students were also excluded from thestudy. Charter schools, magnet schoolsand community day schools were also excluded from this study.
Many charter and magnet schools have anapplication system and lottery for admission. This allows the principal more discretion on the students admitted tothe school versus traditional public schools. Alternative schools are already dealing with students who have beenexpelled. This learning environment isinherently different than a traditional public secondary school. Participants Quantitative.
Theparticipants in the study were principals during the 2016-2017 school year,which is the most current suspension data year. The survey sent to princpals asked how long they have served as principalat their school. Principals thatindicate less than two years were excluded from the study because they were notprincipal of the school during the 2016-2017 school year. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire(MLQ) was distributed to secondary school leaders in the inland empire. Suspension data for African American males inthe Inland Empire was retrieved from public data through the CaliforniaDepartment of Education.
Instrumentation The Multifactor Leadership Questionnairewill be used as a data gathering instrument to quantify the leadership style ofsecondary school leaders in the Inland Empire. The Multifactor LeadershipQuestionnaire was created by Avolio and Bass and is currently sold anddistributed by MindGarden, inc. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (add stats about number ofquestions, validity, reliability, etc here).
ValidityWhether the measurement really measureswhat it purports to measure (Warner, 2013). Get this information from Mind GardenReliabilityConsistency of measurements results(Warner, 2013). Get this information from Mind GardenData Collection Quantitativedata. The researcher sought approval from XX superintendents whohad schools in their district that matched the research requirements for thisstudy to use the district email system to distribute the survey.
After approvalfrom the superintendent the researcher sent the MLQ to principal’s throughtheir school email address.Describehow I will link the survey with suspension data here. Probably a unique code identifier. Response Rate Theresearcher in this study provided the participants six weeks to complete thesurvey. A reminder email was sent once aweek for the six weeks to the participants who had not yet completed thesurvey. Response rate literature and citation here.
Data AnalysisQuantitative data analysis. Theresearcher utilized the Student edition of SPSS (get real name) to analyze the quantitative datain this study. The researcher conducteddescriptive and inferential statistics analyses. The first variable of interest was theleadership style, which was measure by Alonios and Bass’s (XXXX) MultifactorLeadership Questionnaire (MLQ). Thesecond variable of interest was the 2016-2017 suspension data from theCalifornia Department of Education.To determine the risk ration ofout-of-school suspensions the researcher calculated the risk index (Kessinger,2015). This analysis was done to respond to research question one.
The risk was calculated using the formulabelow:Risk Index = Number of Suspensionsreceived by a racial group / Total students enrolledThe risk index was calculated bycomparing the risk index for African American students to the risk index forwhite students (Gibb andSkiba, 2008; Gregory et al, 2010). The risk ratio was calculated usingthe formula below:Risk ratio = Risk index of suspensionsfor African American males / Risk index of suspensions for White malesA risk ration of 1.00 meant there was nodisproportionality in out-of –school suspensions for African American males (Gibb and Skiba, 2008). This is the same measure the State ofCalifornia uses to calculate disproportionality in school districts. (CITATION).
To investigate the relationship betweenprincipal’s leadership style and the out-of-school suspension rates of AfricanAmerican males, a Pearson correlations statistical analysis was conducted. This approach was appropriate because itallowed for the examination between principal leadership style anddisproportionality in African American males. Correlational statistical analysis was used to address research questiontwo. An alpha level of .05 was used to determine significance.