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According to, How social status shapes race article, by Andrew Penner and Aliya Saperstein, to them the ontological orientation to race is that it is not defined biologically (objective) but by the perception of the people.(subjective) People assume things beforehand for example in the beginning of the article, the data provides us with an example of how people identify the race of a person based on their living situation. The article gave us a very good example from the survey that was taken at National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), if someone was “unemployed, incarcerated, or impoverished” (article) they are classified and recognized as black more often than white. Many do things in a subjective because of their surroundings and perception of certain things.  The two ways in which Penner and Saperstein conceptualize race is by examining how individuals are racially classified by others and how they identify themselves. The concept of race is that through this study they noticed that race changes over time and is not predictable. Race is seen through how society portrays it.    The key variables in this study are Dependent and Independent. The Dependent variable is – race identity and the Independent is – employment and income status. Between these variables that the researchers were investigating the relationship is that going back to question 1 – the employment and income status defines what race one might be from. The independent variable gives the results to the dependent variable. It connects the variables which provide us the relationship.   For me, this study is valid through the ecological validity because these findings were based on real-life which is why it is valid. It gives you a sense of what people looks more on your social status to determine your race. It shows you the reality of life. The other validity would be external and this study would not be valid because this survey is not the portrayal of how all of the American feel. This only shows a small portion of people from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), giving their opinions. This survey does not capture the entire state or countries results.

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