According to Arrhenius, an acid is a substance that produces hydrogen ion (H+) or hydronium ions in water. While, a base is a substance that produces hydroxide ions OH(-) in water. Another scientist “BRONSTED LOWRY” gave his definition of an acid as “a substance that acts like proton donor and a base is a substance that acts like a proton acceptor.” Lewis promulgated his acid-base theory as “acid acts as an electron pair acceptors and a base acts an electron pair donor. These are the various acceptable definition of an acid and a base.
A titration is a technique where a solution of known concentration is used to determine the concentration of an unknown solution. Typically, the titrant (the known solution concentration) is added from a burette to a known quantity of the analyte (the unknown solution) until the reaction is complete. By knowing the volume of the known solution that was added allows the determination of the concentration of the unknown to be calculated. In the case of this lab report, equivalent point is considered rather color change.
An equivalence point is when the moles of a standard solution (titrant) equal the moles of a solution of unknown concentration(analyte). The solution that the concentration is known is called a standard solution. The main product of the reaction between an acid and a base is water, these could be understood by looking at the ionic equation. An ionic equation is a chemical equation where the electrolytes in aqueous are expressed in its dissociated form. Since acid(HCl) and base(NaOH) are electrolytes, the dissolve in water to produce ions. Titration is very important in the medical field because it is use to ensure that patients are given the right concentration of anesthetics before performing major surgeries, it is also used to measure the blood glucose level for those with diabetics.
It is also used in food industry to determine saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids. Titration is also essential in automobile industry in measuring the pH of biodiesel.