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Abstract—The advances of emerging technologies havebroadened the meaning as well as the applications of theInternet. With smart connectivity, physical objects arenetworked and will gain the ability to communicate to eachother. The vision of “The Internet of Things (IoT)” promises toenhance the capabilities of objects and forms a smartenvironment so that people will benefit from the IoT revolution.As the global population grows, the resources on earth aredepleted quickly. In order to have a sustainable earth,governments around the world put a lot of efforts to advocatethe reduction of carbon production as well as to emphasize thebenefits of reducing the consumption of energy. The propositionhas been promoted on campus of educational institutions as well.This research adopts the concept of the “Internet of Things”to construct a green campus environment which will realize theidea of energy-saving by properly managing the computers andair conditioners.

The architecture of a green campus isestablished in this research. The prototype of the system is alsodemonstrated in the paper.Index Terms—internet of things, RFID, Zigbee, green campus,cloud computing.I. INTRODUCTIONHE advances of emerging technologies have broadenedthe meaning as well as the applications of the Internet. Inother words, almost every “object” can be part of a network.With smart connectivity, physical objects are networked andwill gain the ability to communicate with each other.

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Thevision of “The Internet of Things (IoT)” promises to enhancethe capabilities of objects and forms a smart environment sothat people can benefit from the IoT revolution 1, 2. TheIoT applications cover the building of smart cities, the set upof smart environment, the provision of smart public services,the plan of eHealth, and the building of smart home/office, etc.1, 3.As the global population grows, the resources on earth aredepleted quickly. In order to have a sustainable earth,governments around the world put a lot of efforts to advocatethe importance of the reduction of carbon production as wellas to emphasize the benefits of reducing the consumption ofenergy. The proposition has been promoted on campuses ofeducational institutions as well.Smart campus is a trendy application in the paradigm of theIoT. The concept of constructing a “Smart campus” impliesthat the institution will adopt advanced ICTs (InformationManuscript received March 1, 2013; revised March 28, 2013.

Hsing-I Wang is now with the Department of Information Management,Overseas Chinese University, Taichung, Taiwan. (e-mail:[email protected]

tw).Communication Technologies) to automatically monitor andcontrol every facility on campus. The benefits gained frombuilding a smart campus include that the use of all facilitiesbecomes more efficient and the energy consumed isminimized.

Such efforts are also recognized as constructing a”Green campus”.Two major ICTs which make the realization of IoTpossible are the emergence of cloud computing and thenetwork of wireless sensors. In fact, cloud computing andwireless-sensor network together can provide the mostreliable, scalable, dynamic and composable resources that theIoTs required 4- 6.This paper demonstrates our work toward constructing agreen campus. The objective is realized by constructing theInternet of Things using wireless sensors. The architecture ofthe green campus within IoT will be explained, and the systemthat we have developed is demonstrated in the paper as well.

II. LITERATURES REVIEWA. The Development of Green CampusNew emerging technologies have changed human lifestyles dramatically. As people enjoy advanced and smart lives,ironically, our earth is facing major crisis that may bringdisasters to human lives as well. Fig. 1 shows the carbonemission records from January 1955 to January 2013.

Theconcentration of atmospheric CO2 was below 320 ppm in1955. By January 2013, the number has increased by 25%.The data indicate how serious the earth has been polluted. Inaddition, more environmental crises such as global warmingand climate disturbance; acid rain, and soil erosion;ecosystem damage and so forth have got the attention acrossthe world 7, 8.

Toward a Green Campus with the Internet ofThings – the Application of Lab ManagementHsing-I WangTFig. 1. Carbon emission from 1955 to 2015 9Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 2013 Vol II,WCE 2013, July 3 – 5, 2013, London, U.K.

ISBN: 978-988-19252-8-2ISSN: 2078-0958 (Print); ISSN: 2078-0966 (Online)WCE 2013Scholars and experts have agreed that the knowledge ofprotecting the earth should be cultivated by educations.Universities should provide leadership for broader society 7and institutions of higher learning have a specialresponsibility to address the continuing environmental crisis7, 8. In 8, the author specifically points out that one ofthe greatest opportunity and ability to conserve energy isthrough facilities management on campus.Educational institutions across the world, especially thehigher education, have recognized that they are in a uniqueposition to prevent the crisis from getting worse. Not only arethe faculties realizing that they possess the intellectualcapacity to address these issues, but also the institutions areputting a lot of efforts in the integration of all resources andeffectively adopting new technologies to their missions tocreate a green environment.

There are a number of wellknown “Green Campus” examples. For instance, the greencampuses of the University of Pennsylvania, BostonUniversity and the University of Chicago in the United States;Macquarie University in Australia; University ofCopenhagen in Denmark and Queen’s University inCanada, etc.In Taiwan, Y. S. Sun Green Building Research CenterLocated at the NCKU Li-Hsing Campus is Taiwan’s firstzero-carbon, energy-saving building.

The building is veryfamous to people in Taiwan as ‘The Magic School of GreenTechnology’. Embedded within The Magic School is the hopethat its design principles can eventually be scaled to Taiwan’smetropolitan centers 10. The building was designed to use”adequate techniques”, instead of “expensive techniques”, toachieve “quadruple benefit”. The aims are estimated to save50% energy, to conserve 30% water, and to reduce 30%carbon emission. It is also expected that the building will beutilized for one hundred years 11. The building startedoperation in January 2011, and in six months, theaccumulated Energy Usage Intensity (EUI) was 19.3 kWh/m².

The figure was far less than Taiwan’s medium and lowintensity office buildings, which consume 125 kWh/m² peryear on average 11. The existence of ‘The Magic School ofGreen Technology’ will be a model for all other universitiesin Taiwan.B. Cloud ComputingThe major function of cloud computing is the delivery ofservices. It is not new to consider the pursuit of “service” asthe entire and sole philosophy in the adoption of newtechnology. Clustering computing, grid computing, andservice oriented architectures are the three famous examplesthat have seamlessly combined technologies with businessflow. Cloud computing is similar to the aforementionedconcepts but with three unique characteristics, which includevirtual, dynamic provision on demand, and negotiation.Therefore, in the literature, cloud computing is defined as,”offering hardware and software resources as services acrossa parallel and distributed system consisting of a collection ofinter-connected and virtualized computers that aredynamically provisioned.

” 12, 13.According to the definition, in the cloud paradigm, thereare many distributed systems. In many cases, the distributedarchitecture consists of wireless sensor networks which areresponsible for sensing data. Cloud computing usually playsimportant role in this kind of architecture since wirelesssensor networks are limited in their processing power, batterylife and communication speed while cloud computing isknown for having powerful computational and processingcapacity and the communication speed is much faster as well14.

Cloud computing is also believed the paradigm fordelivering services for IoT environment 4.C. The Internet of ThingsThe concept and the realization of the “Internet of Things”make the world truly ubiquitous since the IoT radicallychanges the view of the “Internet” by embracing everyphysical object into network 4, 15.The term “Internet of Things” has become very popular inrecent years. There are books to teach or to discuss varioussubjects about the IoT.

International conferences open upsessions for scholars and specialists to exchange their ideas,opinions and experiences regarding the development or theapplications of the IoTs. And finally in 2009, even the EUCommission realized the importance of the revolution of theInternet and initiated an IoT action plan 16.In 17, it is suggested that an IoT must be internet-oriented(middleware), things oriented (sensors) and semantic oriented(knowledge).

Based on the assertions, 4 proposed that thearchitecture of an IoT actually contains three segments whichare the hardware segment, the middleware segment and thepresentation segment. The hardware segment mainly refers tothe connection of sensors or any embedded communicationhardware. The middleware segment usually refers to cloudenvironment which is responsible for data storage,computation and data analytics. The presentation segment, onthe other hand, visualizes the result of data analytics orinterprets the data in an easy and understandable format.

Moreover, an IoT must possess the capabilities ofcommunication and cooperation, addressability,identification, sensing, actuation, embedded informationprocessing, localization and user interfaces 15.At the hardware segment, wireless sensor network isexpected to be a key technology for various IoT applicationssuch as home automation 18, and energy saving 19. Thesensor devices in the wireless sensor network work as thecommunicate node and will communicate to other deviceswirelessly 20. The sensor device also carries out itsdesignated duty to collect data and send data to data center.Therefore, communication and measurement are the twomajor functions of a wireless sensor network 20.ZigBee is the name of a standard that specifies theapplication layer of a wireless network in a small area with alow communication rate 21. Previous researches andprojects have shown that ZigBee sensor networks are suitablefor applications in many different areas.III.

CONSTRUCTING GREEN CAMPUS WITHIN IOTARCHITECTUREBased on the definition and the required elements definedin the literatures, Fig. 2 shows the proposed architecture of theProceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 2013 Vol II,WCE 2013, July 3 – 5, 2013, London, U.K.ISBN: 978-988-19252-8-2ISSN: 2078-0958 (Print); ISSN: 2078-0966 (Online)WCE 2013green campus within IoT. The architecture consists of threemajor segments which are the hardware segment, themiddleware segment and the presentation segment.The hardware segment mainly uses RFID to induce thestudents who are going to enter the computer labs. The IoT issetup to connect the computers and the air conditioners in thelab. Not only do the computers own an IP, but also each airconditioner is assigned an IP.

The temperature sensor moduleof ZigBee is used to monitor the temperatures in the lab.In our work, a ZigBee network is constructed withZB2530-01devices from Dmatek Limited Taiwan. Thespecifications of the devices are as follows:1) Radio frequency: 2.4 GHz band.2) Data rate: 38400bit/s (max to 115200).3) Distances: 10 meters4) Number of channels: the device is able to search up to 32satellite channels.5) 10 I/O ports.The emitter device shown in Fig.

3 is placed in the lab andconnected to the IoT. The receiver device shown in Fig. 4 isconnected to a PC via a USB interface. The receiver devicewill collect all the data sent by the emitters.All the data collected, including the data read by RFID, thestatus of each of the computers in the lab as well as thetemperatures of the computer room, are sent to the center ofdata and applications.

The data are computed, analyzed andcontrolled.At the presentation segment, two major systems areprovided to students and controller of the general affair office.The students may use computers or any mobile devices toconnect to the system and retrieve the usage status of theselected computer lab. This will allow the students to makeproper decisions if they still want to go to the labs whichmight not have seats available.The application that monitors the changes of thetemperatures of each lab allows the controller to control theair conditioners in the lab.

In addition, the network alertsystem will track the usage of each computer so that thecomputer will be shut down once it has been idle for adesignated time.IV. THE INTRODUCTION OF THE SYSTEMThe prototype of the computer labs control system has beendeveloped in this research.

Fig. 5 through Fig. 11demonstrates how the system operates.On the lab side, the system tracks the usage of everycomputer lab at all times (Fig. 5). The system gives theinformation of computers that are occupied, available ormalfunctioning.Once a student enters a lab, the RFID reader reads his orher ID, the system will assign an available seat to the student(Fig. 6) and the status of that seat will be marked with greencolor to indicate that the seat is ‘in use’ (Fig.

7).Fig. 2. The architecture of the green campus within IoT proposed inthis research.Fig. 4. The receiver that reads the signal from emitter.Fig.

3. The emitter which equips with the temperaturesensor and sends out the temperature readingcontinuously.Fig. 5. The system shows the usage status of every computer lab.Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 2013 Vol II,WCE 2013, July 3 – 5, 2013, London, U.K.ISBN: 978-988-19252-8-2ISSN: 2078-0958 (Print); ISSN: 2078-0966 (Online)WCE 2013Each student is allowed one hour to use the computer.

Awarning message will be given and the computer will be shutdown automatically by the system (Fig. 8) if the computer hasbeen occupied for more than one hour or if the system detectsthat the computer has been idle for some time.A system control dashboard is provided to the controller inthe general affairs office.

Four functions are available atpresent system. The first tab shows the same labs informationas the students can see. The second tab (Fig. 9) gives thecurrent temperature of a selected lab.

By clicking the on/offbutton, the controller is able to turn on or turn off the airconditioners in the lab.The third page shows the real time average temperatures ofall computer labs (Fig. 10). In every 30 minutes, this systemrecords the average temperatures of all computer labs. Therecords are shown on the fourth page of the dashboard (Fig.11). The temperatures that are below 26 are marked withgreen. If the temperatures are higher than 30, red colorsappear to show the warning.

Yellow colors are shown if thetemperatures are in between.Fig.6. RFID reader senses a tag and assigns a seat to the student.

Fig. 11. The changes of the temperatures in the computer labs.Fig.

10. The average temperature measured by ZigBee temperaturesensor in the computer labs.Fig. 9.

The status of each of the air conditions in the computer lab.Fig. 8. The warning message will pop up on the screen either whenthe computer has been occupied for more than an hour or thecomputer was assigned to a student but has been detected idle forsome time.Fig. 7. The system indicates the number of seats that are occupied, orthe seats that are still available, or the number of computers that are notin function.Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 2013 Vol II,WCE 2013, July 3 – 5, 2013, London, U.

K.ISBN: 978-988-19252-8-2ISSN: 2078-0958 (Print); ISSN: 2078-0966 (Online)WCE 2013Together with the information of the status of computerlabs, air conditioners and the changes of the temperatures aswell as the statistics of the temperatures in the labs, thecontroller can make decisions easily. The decisions such ashow many labs should open to students, when and which airconditioner should be turned on, and finally, the controllercan also monitor if the computers are used properly andefficiently.V. CONCLUSIONThis research adopts the concept of the “Internet ofThings” to construct the green campus which will realize theidea of energy-saving.

The objects of our work include thecomputers and air conditioners. RFIDs and the ZigBee devicewith temperature module are used to build up the wirelesssensor network.The contributions delivered by this research include:1) The computer labs can be managed efficiently.

More labswill be open only when the demand is increasing.2) The use of the computers will be monitored at all times.This mechanism decreases the number of idle power-oncomputers.3) The air conditioners will be turned on only when thetemperatures reach a preset level. As a result, moreenergy will be saved.The idea of constructing a green campus is just the first stepin our institution. This research shows how to build up the IoTto manage computer labs. The performance of current projectwill be examined continuously.

The next phase is to build theIoT around the whole campus. Hopefully, as a highereducational institution, we can show some leadership anddemonstrate our responsibilities to the society.ACKNOWLEDGMENTThe author likes to thank Y. Lai, Y. Chen, Y. Lin, M.

Shen,L. Hung and H. Chen for their dedication to the developmentof the system.REFERENCES1 A. Gluhak, S. Krco, M. Nati, D.

Pfisterer, N. Mitton, and T.Razafindralambo, “A Survey on Facilities for Experimental Internet ofThings Research,” IEEE Commun Mag. vol. 49, 2011, pp. 58-67.2 M.

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43-51.3 Libelium, “50 Sensor Applications for a Smarter World,” Online.Available:http://www.libelium.com/top_50_iot_sensor_applications_ranking.

Visited on January 10, 2013.4 J. Gubbi, R. Buyya, S. Marusic, and M. Palaniswami, “Internet ofThings (IoT): A Vision, Architectural Elements, and FutureDirections,” FGCS (in review, unpublished work). Available:http://www.cloudbus.

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internet-of-things-research.eu/pdf/IoT_Cluster_Strategic_Research_Agenda_2011.pdf.7 L. Sharp, “Green campuses: the Road from Little Victories to SystemicTransformation,” International Journal of Sustainability in HigherEducation, vol. 3 no. 2, pp.128-145, 2002.

8 W. Simpson, “Energy Sustainability and the GreenCampus,” Planning for Higher Education, vol. 31, no. 3, pp.150-158,March/May 2003.9 Earth’s Home Page, Available: http:// http://co2now.org. Visited onFebruary 5, 2013.

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512-518, December 2009.15 F. Mattern and C.

Floerkemeier, “From the Internet of Computers tothe Internet of Things,” K. Sachs, I. Petrov, and P. Guerrero (Eds.):Buchmann Festschrift, LNCS 6462, pp.

242–259, 2010.16 European Commission, (2009), “Internet of Things – An action planfor Europe,” COM (2009) 278. Available:http://eur-lex.

europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/com/2009/com2009_0278en01.pdf17 L. Atzori, A. Iera, and G. Morabito, “The Internet of Things: A survey,”Comput Netw, vol. 54, pp.

2787–2805, 2010.18 ZigBee Alliance, (2007), “ZigBee Home Automation Public Application Profile,”Available:http://www.zigbee.org/Products/TechnicalDocumentsDownload/tabid/237/Default.aspx.

Visited on November 20, 2012.19 ZigBee Alliance (2007), “The Choice for EnergyManagement and Efficiency,” ZigBee White Paper. Available:http://www.

zigbee.org/Products/TechnicalDocumentsDownload/tabid/237/Default.aspx. Visited on November 20, 2012.20 M. Terada, “Application of ZigBee Sensor Network to DataAcquisition and Monitoring,” Measurement Science Review, vol. 9, no.6, pp.

1983-186, 2009.21 ZigBee Alliance, (2006), “ZigBee Specification,” Available:http://www.zigbee.

org/Products/TechnicalDocumentsDownload/tabid/237/Default.aspx. Visited on November 20, 2012.Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 2013 Vol II,WCE 2013, July 3 – 5, 2013, London, U.K.ISBN: 978-988-19252-8-2ISSN: 2078-0958 (Print); ISSN: 2078-0966 (Online)WCE 2013

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