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HEIs’ Integrated Marketing Communication message and its negative impact on
students’ institutional selection


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            Fombrun defines Brands as as
intangible assets which reflect
the company’s value and bring competitive advandtages to the company (as cited in Nandan, S.,2005).   De Chernatony and Harris (2001) argue that brand identity
includes values, aim and moral image that together constitute the essence of
individuality that distinguish the brand. Brand identity offers possibility to position
a brand and encourages strategic approach while managing it.

            Planned brand
identity consists of several of subcomponents pertaining to brand elements  (Foroudi et al.,
2014), websites
(Van den Bosch
et al., 2006), social media (Nekmat & Gower, 2012) , advertising(Foroudi et al.,
2014), public
relations (Kitchen et al.,
direct marketing  (Schultz et al.,
1993a,1993b), place/country of origin(Caemmerer, 2009), brand awareness, image, positioning, and reputation (Foroudi et al.,
2016). According
to Vranesevic and Stancec (2003) ,amongst themselves, brand element such as logo, color and names
is one of the vital subcomponents which stand out the firm’s brand identity and
helps to comsumers recognise it while purchasing. When the customers hesitate
to buy the products, websites may make a strong impact on their
decision-making. Liu and Arnett show that well-designed websites which are in-formative,
convenient and logical would inspire customer’s interest and gain their confidence
(Liu & Arnett, 2000). Besides, social media helps to directly convey the firm’s
message to mass audience as well as targeted audience (Wallace et al.,
2011). Advitising
is also a significant tool to convey the firm’s message to customers (Belch & Belch, 2011). Businesses have to be per-ceived
as members of the social media community in order to use social media marketing
effectively . Companies can benefit from using the social media in numerous
ways, the main goals being to build their customer base, manage the company’s
reputation and find out what their customers are think ing and saying about
their brand and product (Ward, 2012). Fame and brand awareness can
be aided by direct marketing by creating and increaseing visual and verbal
exposure of a brand to the consumer, then creating strong brand associations in
the consumer’s memory (Yoo et al., 2000). Caemmerer (2009) define country of origine is a place of
maufacture, production or growth where a that product comes from and it is
conveyed through marketing communication messages. It is one of the key criteria
for customer to evaluate the product and make decisions (Johansson, 1989). Aaker argues that the awareness effects and guides customers’brand-favor
because people seem to make choices for what they are familiar with (Aaker, 1991). Awareness and image are keys to recognise the brand. Simonson et al. claims that a possitive image may
increase customer-searching rate and their eagerness to discover more channel
about the brand (Simonson et al.,
Trout and Ries (1972) believe that position can create a position in “prospects
mind”. Foroudi et al. (2014) define
reputation as the overall evaluation of a firm over time.

In the research in 2016,
Foroudi et al. prove that brand elements
, websites , social media,  advertising , public relations and direct
marketing have various affect on planned brand identity. Simultanously, they
conclude that universities should devote more attention to these elements which
can influence perception held by different stakeholder group. In 2009, Urde shows that brand identity has a positive in?uence on
consumers’ awareness of the brand/company and  the brand identity in turn serves as a bridge
between the subcomponents of brand identity and the identity that the customers
perceive. The brand identity is highly important to students’ school
selection. (Rutter et al.,






Aaker, D. A.
(1991). Managing Brand Equity: Capitalizing on the Value of a Brand Name. Jossey Bass, 63.

Belch, G. E., and Belch, M. A. (2011). Advertising and
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Caemmerer, B. (2009). The planning and implementation of
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Foroudi, P., Dinnie, K., Kitchen.P.J, Melewar, T. C., and
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Journal of Marketing, 441-456.

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higher education: anthropomorphized university
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