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7.1.Demography  – Demography is the scientific study ofhuman population. It is concerned with changes in the size of the population,its composition and distribution in space.

Demographiccycle –  The demographic cycle refers to the evolutionover time of the population profile of a country, region or other definedgeographical area.  World population trend  – The current world population of 7.6 billion is expected to reach 8.6billion in 2030, 9.8 billion in 2050 and 11.

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2 in 2100, according to a new Unitednations report . Approximately in world’s population every year 83 millionpeople are added, the increase in population size trend is expected tocontinue. Demographictrends in India(growth rate,age pyramid, sex ratio, population density, family size, urbanization,literacy, and life expectancy)Growth rate – India is the second most populouscountry in the world, next to china with a population of more than 1.15 billion.The population of India and average annualexponential growth rate since 1921 is shown it the table.

Census year Total population ( in millions) Average annual exponential Growth rate (%) 1901 238.4   1911 252.1 0.56 1921 251.3 (-)0.

03 1931 259.0 1.04 1941 318.7 1.33 1951 361.1 1.

25 1961 439.2 1.96 1971 548.

2 2.20 1981 683.3 2.22 1991 846.4 2.

16 2001 1028.6 1.7 2011 1210.1 1.64 Since1921India’s population is increasing steadily.. It is projected to reach 1.53billion by the year 2050.

This will make India the most populous country in theworld, surpassing china.Age composition – the proportion of population less than 15 years (33per cent) is showing decline, whereas the proportion of old age i.e. Populationaged more than 65 years (5 per cent) is increasing.Sex ratio – Sex ratio is defined as “the number of femalesper 1000 males”.

Sex ratio isthe basic demographic characteristics of the population is the sex composition.Density of the population – Density of population is one of theimportant indices of population concentration. In the Indian census, Density isdefined as the number of persons, living per square kilometre. The trends ofthe density in the country from 1951 onwards are shown in the table. For theyear 2004, the density of population per sq.

Km in India is 363. Density of thepopulation’  – (1951 -2001) Year Per sq. Km 1951 117 1961 142 1971 177 1981 216 1991 267 2001 325 2011 382          Family size –  Family size refers to the total number of persons in a family.In demographyfamily size means the total number of children a woman has borne at a point of time.

Thecompleted family size indicates the total number of children borne by a  woman during herchild-bearing age, which is generally assumed to be between 15 and 45 years. Thetotal fertilityrate(TFR) gives the approximate magnitude of completed family size.  The family sizedepends upon numerous factors, viz.

Age at marriage, Literacy of thecouple, thenumber of children, preference of male children desired family size, etc.,Urbanization – In developing countries growing urbanization is arecent phenomenon  due to theindustrialization . In India, the proportion of the urban population hasincreased from 10.84 percent in 1901 to 25.

72 per cent in the 2005-06. The increase in urban population hasbeen both to natural growth (through births) and migration from villages. Literacy and education – A person is deemed as literate  if he or she can read and write withunderstanding in any language. A person who can merely read but cannot write isnot considered asliterate. The literacy rate for 2001 census is 65.38 per cent with  male literacy rateof 76 per cent and female literacy rate of 54 per cent.

Life expectancy – Life expectancy or expectation of life at a givenage is the average number of yearswhich a person of that age may expect to live, according to the mortality pattern in thatcountry.  In India Life expectancy atbirth of for the year  is 2005 – 06 is 63.9 years formales and 66.9 years for females.

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