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The highest degree of EphA2 expression among tumors is inspected most commonly in metastatic lesions, recommending that EphA2 may represent a high-priority target for immunotherapy, particularly in patients with advanced stage or metastatic cancer. Yamaguchi et al showed that some patients with renal cell carcinoma exhibited both CD8-positive and CD4-positive T Cell responses to novel, EphA2-derived epitopes and that was useful for predicting disease status and outcome as immunomonitoring targets(145). Shinjiro et al investigated the efficacy of vaccination based on DCs pulsed with EphA2-derived peptides(Eph-DCs) in a murine colon and liver cancer model(145,157). Eph-DCs immunization inhibited EphA2 positive MC38 cell-induced tumor growth, but  EphA2-DCs vaccination  had  no impact on EphA2 negative BL6 cell-induced tumor growth(145). These results also supported the therapeutic potential Eph-DC based vaccines(145). But, the clinical application of DC-based vaccine continues limited by several components, as well as regulating DCs in a highly activated state, limited time period and lack of coincidental functional alterations or cytotoxicity(148,149). To augment T cell responses to weak tumor antigens, Chen et al developed a novel vaccine using EphA2 epitope fused with LIGHT plasmid serves as a promising approach for glioma treatment(150).  Mayumi et al investigated HSP90 inhibitors, such as  17-DMAG (alvespimycin) for enhanced EphA2 reduction by stimulated EphA2 overexpression tumor cell recognition through specific  CD+8 T cell immunoreactivity. These findings suggested that 17-DMAG functions as an immunotherapeutic in the framework of vaccines directing EphA2(158,159Mang li et al determined that ephrin A1–PE38-GM-CSF have high efficacy in the activation of the dendritic cells could facilitate the advancement of in vivo dendritic-cell vaccines for the treatment of glioma through a specific local antitumor immune response and a systemic immunotherapeutic effect(activation). Recently, a cocktail of three glioma-associated antigens (EphA2, IL13R?2, surviving) in combination with poly-ICLC based vaccination was developed and clinical trial proved safety to treated in pediatric patients with high-grade gliomas (HGGs)(160,161,162,163).

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Hamza Aslam, Shahid Ali, Usman Ali, Hasnain



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elicitation is a main action in the process of requirement development and it
is the validation of user requirements. The Analyst has to face different
challenges during requirement elicitation process which are used to ensure the
effective communication between the user and the analyst. Because of the poor
communication between the user and the analyst mostly errors occur. This paper
gives/proposes an approach named paper prototype for requirement elicitation.


Keywords: Requirements Engineering, Requirement Elicitation,
Paper prototype

1.  Introduction

Requirements engineering are an essential and central component
of software development. Regardless the methods utilized the fundamentals still
continues as before. Requirements engineering is basically described
in 5 major stages which are named as:




Fig -1 the process of requirements engineering

Over the previous years, there is numerous system advancement
techniques have been proposed to address the issue of identifying the user
requirements. In any case, these techniques for the most part concentrate on
the investigation of user requirement instead of elicitation of those
requirements. They likewise make a implicit supposition that user know and can
explain their requirements– perhaps with the assistance of an analyst. Research
has shown that numerous users experience issues articulating their requirement
until the point that they see them. It is impossible for a user to identify
completely and effectively the correct requirements of a software with first
try 15.


According to the user feedback the paper prototype is
altered/changed. It is refined till the user is happy with the model and every
one of the requirements are gathered. Once the prototype is concluded
/finalized requirements are balanced out or stabilized. The requirements
specification is done after the stabilization procedure and the prototype can
be disposed of. Disposable prototyping is recommended in light of the fact that
once the requirements are gathered the prototype is discarded and rest of the
stages are executed as common with the goal that the system quality is kept up.
Before concluding the requirements an endorsement from the user can be looked
for so the measure of adjust on requirements can be limited or minimized.


This paper proposed an approach paper prototyping for
requirements Elicitation. However, users just have access to the prototype in
most prototype assessments and request their feedback. Almost no structure is
given. Developers have experience issues to understand the often-conflicting
feedback from various clients.


The association of the paper is as per the following:

Section 2: Related Work.

Section 3: Methodology.

Section 4: Experimental Results

Section 5: Conclusion and Future Work.

Section 6: References.

Section 7: Appendix.

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