3.0. PREVIEW In this chapter explains the researchmethodology used by the researcher while conducting this study. The aim of thisresearch is to investigate experiences of third-party sexual harassment towardsfemale frontline employees to minimise or prevent sexual harassment fromoccurring in the workplace environment in the future. This chapter explains themethodology used, beginning with an explanation of what a qualitative researchapproach method is and why this type of design was selected for this study. Thebeginning of the sample in the study is explained, along with the interviewstyle, together with the techniques employed to avoid deception.
Finally, thedata analysis method is presented and the ethical issues arising fromresearching such a sensitive topic are addressed.3.1. RESEARCHDESIGN This research used qualitative design.In qualitative research, it contains a number of procedures of data in-depthinterviews and case studies.
Based on this study, researcher used qualitativein-depth interview method to increase the researcher’s depth understanding inconducting this research. 3.1.1.
METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION The protocol for the interview was theformulation of interview questions aimed at extracting valuable informationfrom the participant’s knowledge on the reliability of the objective andpurpose of the study. The formulated questions went through the lecturerapproval to proceed with the interview. Besides that, for the data collection,the answers given by the respondents were recorded and transcribed. Overall,during the data collection, the researcher received good responses andfeedbacks from the respondents in answering the questions. Moreover, thisresearch that used qualitative design does not pose any harm or treat to theparticipants. Careful data collection procedures are imperative to advance theknowledge in social sciences. Data are collected from many sources; the mostcommon being surveys and interviews (Axinn & Pearce, 2006).
Theinterviews for this study took between 10 and 40 minutes per person, dependingon the comfort of the participants. Some participants spoke freely and enjoyedthe process, while others appeared to find it uncomfortable and generally movedon hastily to the next question. These participants were given prompts but werenot pressed.
The interviews were taped with prior permission, using an audiorecording device, and later transcribed into a written document. It took twomonths to interview and collects the data.3.2. SCOPE OF STUDY This study covers only among employeesin UiTM Shah Alam. The respondents consist of employees in Hal Ehwal Pelajarand other respondents were from other department. This is because respondentsfrom this department are closely related to the existence of sexual harassmentand the awareness of sexual harassment in an organization.
3.3. SAMPLINGTECHNIQUE The population for this research wasamong the employees in UiTM Shah Alam.
Besides that, to collect the data fromthe sampling respondent, this research used non-probability sampling whichsample does not have known probability of being selected as in convenience orvoluntary response surveys. The targeted respondents for this survey consist ofemployees who have experienced in sexual harassment. As for this study, 5random respondents were selected to answer the questions on level of awarenesson sexual harassment and the types of sexual harassment at workplace. 3.
4. MEASUREMENT/INSTRUMENT In this study, researcher do in-depthinterview because researcher thinks that interview is the best instrument forthis study. Furthermore, this open-ended and discovery-oriented method iswell-matched for labelling developments and results from the viewpoint of thetarget audience during the interview. It is face-to-face conversation with anindividual and the goal is to intensely discover the informants’ responses,emotional state and standpoints in a more concrete manners.
Moreover, systematicrecording and documenting from the replies together with intensely discoverfrom this replies together with intense probing for deeper meaning andunderstanding of the responses occurred during the process and not onlyfocusing on the prepared questions by the researcher. However, it mightrequires repeated interview session if researcher find that the informationneeds to be obtained. Besides that, to increasethe reliability of the findings, an interview protocol was needed in guidingthe researcher for administration as well as the implementation during theinterview was being conducted. It is very essential that the respondent mustexpound on the topic during the interview and not simply answering yes or no asit was an open-ended questions that should be worded. Furthermore, the interviewprotocol was made up of four major three major sections with total 25 mainquestions which collected the data on respondents’ demographic profile (SectionA), the level of awareness (Section B) and the types of sexual harassment(Section C).
In Section A:Demographics, there are 6 questions. The questions collected the information ontheir personal details such as, age, gender, race marital status, highestqualification and numbers of years employees in this organisations.In Section B: The level ofawareness towards sexual harassment, for the purpose of collecting data of thefirst research question, 12 questions was constructed. Furthermore, thisopen-ended question was formed to find out the level of awareness on sexualharassment at workplace among employees in UiTM Shah Alam. In Section C: The types ofsexual harassment at workplace. In this section, 7 questions were constructedto investigate the types of sexual harassment that predominantly found in workplace.In concluding remarkssection, which is the last section of the interview session, the interviewerexpressed her gratitude and appreciation for informants. This is because oftheir ability to spend their precious time to be interviewed and answering allthe questions to complete this study.
3.5. METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS Qualitative data analysis exposesthemes that emerge through the researcher’s work of exploring, categorising,explaining and defining the data collected (Huberman & Miles, 2002). Muchlike a complex puzzle, there are pieces ‘that are so unique they can be seenstraight away’ (Dey, 2003, p. 41), whereas other pieces need to be grouped intocategories to later sort further into themes allowing comparisons to be moreeffective for discussion later.Adopting an interpretivist methodologymade it impossible for the researcher to be objective because of her strongbackground in hospitality and the partnerships developed with the participantsof the study. Using an interpretivist approach allowed multiple themes toemerge through the interviewer’s ability to investigate alternative paths thatwere highlighted during the interviews.
For example, if a participant talkedabout an experience that created an interesting perspective for the research,she would be prompted for further information. This created the opportunity formultiple experiences to be discussed in the interviews and a thorough analysisof what the participant defined as sexual harassment and any influences thatmay have onset their particular experience. The initial demographic data in thefirst section of the interview were analysed using an Excel spreadsheet. Thesewere the closed ended questions that were put into a spreadsheet as a listdesigned to make common themes obvious. This input and analysis was undertakendirectly after each interview.There are many different ways ofcoding and categorising information retrieved from interviews, such astranscribing the notes into a written document with wide margins for takingnotes (Kwortnik, 2003). The cutting and sorting technique was found to be themost beneficial method for this study because it was easier to see the commonanswers. This technique easily highlighted themes present and allowed for theanonymity of the participant as the researcher did not know the contributor(see Gough & Scott, 2000).
The qualitative data analysisinvestigated themes and patterns that emerged. By segmenting, coding andorganising the data, trends were easily identified. During the analysis stagethe transcripts were read repeatedly to identify trends, and for wordrepetition to be easily identifiable. Words such as ‘power’ and ‘intoxication’were highlighted because they had been identified in the review of influenceson sexual harassment. Finally, each of the answers was categorised by thequestions in the interview and comparisons were made to see which texts weresimilar.
3.6. SUMMARY To conclude for this chapter, theresearcher presented the important aspects in research methodology employed tothis study such as research design, sampling techniques, research instruments,data collection and also data analysis. Besides that, since the methodology ofthis study was qualitative, the instruments aspects of methodology werediscussed in detail of the next chapter.
A qualitative research approach usinginterviews was the most appropriate method for this study because it gave richdata through a greater interpretation of the social phenomenon which is sexualharassment. It provided an understanding of the relationship between socialexperiences and phenomena in the hospitality industry. Using interviews alloweda variety of themes to emerge compared to the data that a quantitative approachwould have produced.The qualitative design of the researchallowed insight into the participants’ experiences and allowed the researcherto become part of the study. The qualitative method allowed a generalunderstanding of the situations involved, and enabled probing to gather furtherdata allowing optimal theoretical abstraction. In the following chapter, thefindings are discussed.?