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1. Hobbes’

Life as an incessant war of “every man against every man” before
invention of government due to state of nature being autonomous

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Desire for peace and stability became so prevalent that people
would seek out a sovereign to transfer their sovereignty to in exchange for
peace and stability


2. Locke’s Theory

Government exists to protect unalienable human rights of life,
liberty and protection over property

Should rights be tampered with, government should be removed


3. Managing individuals

Individuals are innately selfish and driven by self-interest –
constantly at war with each other in order to attain the best for themselves

Need for government to provide impartial judgement on various
aspects of life to govern public behaviour

Rules of engagement established by higher order for the collective
good – legislation to limit selfish unruly behaviour and establish social norms

E.g. SG anti cyber-bullying and harassment law to criminalize
behaviour that cause social disturbance and maintain order


4. Managing communities

Prevent chaos and anarchy between large interest groups with
competing goals and ideologies

Prevent subsuming less powerful minority groups

E.g. CAR religious genocide when government failed to protect
Muslim Seleka fighters from Christian Anti-balaka in a fight for social identity

E.g. Libya as a failed state after end of Gaddafi’s regime due to
lawlessness and chaos (despite repressive regime defined by bloodshed)

E.g. Iraq crisis between Sunnis and Shiites after fall of Saddam


5. Equal resource distribution

Privately run sectors may not ensure fair distribution of
important public goods thus  govt ensure services are given to those who
have little access to it

Re-distribution of country’s wealth to achieve equitable society
as inequality can lead to divisive, polarized society

E.g. pre-school education in SG is largely run by private sector
but quality ranges from premier schools to those of lesser quality. State run
kindergartens thus are opened with the intention to provide quality education
at affordable prices, with a quota for children from low-income families

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