1. Hobbes’Theory· Life as an incessant war of “every man against every man” beforeinvention of government due to state of nature being autonomous· Desire for peace and stability became so prevalent that peoplewould seek out a sovereign to transfer their sovereignty to in exchange forpeace and stability 2. Locke’s Theory· Government exists to protect unalienable human rights of life,liberty and protection over property· Should rights be tampered with, government should be removed 3. Managing individuals· Individuals are innately selfish and driven by self-interest -constantly at war with each other in order to attain the best for themselves· Need for government to provide impartial judgement on variousaspects of life to govern public behaviour· Rules of engagement established by higher order for the collectivegood – legislation to limit selfish unruly behaviour and establish social norms· E.g.
SG anti cyber-bullying and harassment law to criminalizebehaviour that cause social disturbance and maintain order 4. Managing communities· Prevent chaos and anarchy between large interest groups withcompeting goals and ideologies · Prevent subsuming less powerful minority groups· E.g.
CAR religious genocide when government failed to protectMuslim Seleka fighters from Christian Anti-balaka in a fight for social identity· E.g. Libya as a failed state after end of Gaddafi’s regime due tolawlessness and chaos (despite repressive regime defined by bloodshed)· E.g. Iraq crisis between Sunnis and Shiites after fall of SaddamHussein 5.
Equal resource distribution· Privately run sectors may not ensure fair distribution ofimportant public goods thus govt ensure services are given to those whohave little access to it· Re-distribution of country’s wealth to achieve equitable societyas inequality can lead to divisive, polarized society · E.g. pre-school education in SG is largely run by private sectorbut quality ranges from premier schools to those of lesser quality. State runkindergartens thus are opened with the intention to provide quality educationat affordable prices, with a quota for children from low-income families