IntroductionIn Bangalore, clearly indicates that mobile application and newspaper play a crucial role in their life and they use them for media related activities such as accessingnews, watching news online and using to gain information every day as possible.The Internet provides the practical capability for a user to read any source ,examine its sources, and interact through a natural medium that other media donot provide. A newspaper’s Web site can provide e-mail addresses or discussionforums that make journalists accessible while fostering community discussion. Asite can offer audio clips from interviews, text of government records, andinteractive maps that all can change the way a reader understands a story.With the discovery ofthe online apps or internet, newspapershave faced challenges over the decades, yet publishers have always adopted andprevented.
However the news apps is proving to be a far more dangerous foe tothe traditional newspaper model, facedwith such an adversary, small and large news paper alike may have no choice butto abandon their traditional method, for a more innovative approach .Newspapers have atradition of seeking, gathering, processing, and producing news in a one-waydaily delivery, but the Internet can give users the ability to make thereporting process more transparent if site visitors can see, hear, or read thesources reporters relied on. In order to get to a point where sites make fulluse of the online functions that make the Web unique.The Internet opens alot of opportunities, creates a lotof new mobile apps for the distributionof news media. Initially there are limited number of paper and localpublications these days.
The news media industry expected a revolution in theway news was collected, published, distributed and consumed, with the dawn ofInternet. There have been severaldiscussions about the future of journalism like, how online media will have aneffect on newspaper, will newspaper may die, because of the rise of onlinemedia. Much of this discussion has proven to be myth.
Online media hasn’tkilled newspaper completely. It seems they both have an enough audience tosurvive for many more years to come. It is easy to observe that people of aparticular age group choose offline over online media, and people belonging toanother age group will choose vice versa. This choice is driven by their habitsas has been observed by Lee & Delli Carpini(2010), in their research. The question is how hasonline news media made a difference in the news consumption habits of people. This paper tries to look indepth at what role does habits have to play in consumption of news online andpaper. The growth of mobile phones in India and in particular their popularityand use by young people in India has been the object of international andnational media attention in the past few years.
The Internet as a lot ofopportunities, and creates a lot of new ways for giving out news in mediums. 1.2.PURPOSEOF THE STUDY The main objective of this case study is to examinethe use of mobile application or newspaper as main medium to consume news by youngpeople between the ages of 18-25 living or studying in the city of Bangalore inIndia.
The following discussion first provides a background on India and the cityof Bangalore. It provides a explanation ofyoung adults in Bangalore. It then provides a definition of gender used in thisstudy. Then it provides a background on mobile application in India and thedefinition of mobile application used inthis study. 1.
2.INDIA:India is a vast country divided in 28 states, nineunion territories and 593 districts (www.censusindia.gov.in). In each of thesestates, people speak different languages and practice different culturalcustoms and practices. For example, there are at least 29 languages and over200 dialects spoken all over India. As a result, cultural variations exit withinIndia.
Therefore, there are likely to be differences in the use of mobileapplication or newspapers within different parts of India. For this study,Bangalore is selected to see if the individuals living in these city, located in different area use mobile phonesdifferently. I choose this, one city Bangalore for a variety of reasons. First, it wasconvenient for me to do research in these city because I have family andfriends with whom I could stay during the course of my research and who couldhelp me find interviewees. Second, I have had the experience of growing up andliving in these city, so I was quitefamiliar with the differences in cultural surroundings in these city.
For example,in Bangalore, it is quite common foryoung people to party late at night inone of the numerous night clubs or go out on a date even if their familiesdon’t approve of it, because Bangalore is such a big city it is difficult for parentsto know what their children are doing when they are away from home. The thirdimportant factor was to come across in urban surroundings in these city also in their urban ecology and socio cultural surroundingsis given below. 1.3.BANGALORE(https://www.
bangaloreone.gov.in/public/govtsites.aspx)Bangalore,also known as Bengaluru (Kannada) is the capital of theIndian State of Karnataka.
Bangalore is nicknamed the Garden City and was once called aPensioner’s Paradise. Located on the Deccan Plateau in thesouth-eastern part of Karnataka, Bangalore is India’s third most crowded city. Thereare a number of expats from across the world living in the city, thanks to the growingpresence of Multi-National Companies.
Today as a large city and growingmetropolis, Bangalore is home to many of the most well-recognized colleges andresearch institutions in India. Numerous public sector heavy industries,software companies, aerospace, telecommunications, and defenseorganizations are located in the city. Bangalore is known as the Silicon Valley ofIndia because of its position as the nation’s leading IT exporter. A demographicallydiverse city, Bangalore is a major economic and cultural hub and the fastest growing majormetropolis in India. The city chosen for this study provides a good example forcomparing within city differences regarding the use of mobile application annewspapers. The next section provides the definition of young adults anddescribes the differences among young people in Bangalore.
1.4.YOUTHS “Youths” inthis study refers to individuals, who are in the age-group of 18-25 years. Developmentalpsychologists define this life-stage of individuals as a transitory periodbetween adolescence and adulthood (Arnett, 2000), also suggests that in modern-daywestern societies, the stage of teenage years is extended as most individualsdo not fulfill the criteria required to achieve maturity such as marriage,financial independence and completion of education. Therefore, this periodallows young people to prolong their identity explorations, especially in theareas of love, work and worldview. Therefore, young people continue theirsearch for personal identity, friendships, romantic partners and struggle forindependence in order to assume adult roles and responsibilities by the end oftheir 20s. By 2020, India’s share of youth in its total population isexpected to be 34..
33 per cent, according to data survey conducted in 2016,from the Central Statistics Office.On average, by the age of 18, individuals make animportant transition from school to college life in most countries. However,the exact age of this change may vary.
While in western countries, young adultsleave home and start their college life on college campuses, in India majorityof young adults continue to live with their parents unless they go out of townfor their studies. Whilein countries such as United States, young people live on college campuses theyare fairly independent from parents, whereas in India, since young adultscontinue to live with their parents, there is more interference from parents inthe life choices they make. For example, the common cultural standard ofarranged marriages in India shows that parents choose a marriage partner fortheir children.
Further, in traditional Indian culture it is not consideredappropriate for young males and females to socialize with each other, alsodating and flirting is not considered appropriate. However, in the recent past,due to modernization these cultural rules are changing, this change is unevenacross country. In larger cities which are more modernized, the traditionalrules have changed far more than in smaller cities, where the culture is more traditional.
In this study, it isassumed that since BANGALORE provides different cultural environments, youngpeople in these city will behavedifferently. The next section describes youth in Bangalore. 1.5.BANGALOREYOUTH :In Bangalore, most children make the transition fromschool to college around the age of 16 years once they complete their highschool, that is, 10th grade. Most youths obtain there higher secondary education (11thand 12th grade) in colleges. However, they continue to live with their parentsthroughout their higher education. Because Bangalore has many educational institutesoffering a variety of vocational and professional courses, young people fromall over the country travel to Bangalore to seek higher education.
The studentswho come from outside Bangalore usuallylive in a hostel or rent an apartment with friends. This study is mainlyconcerned about all young people in Bangalore, a typical day in thelife of college-going youths involves leaving home early in the morning and reaching backhome in late evening. Usually young peopletravel by local trains and buses across the city.
Throughout the day, theyeither attend lectures or spend time with friends. Because Bangalore is large,it is difficult for parents to keep an eye on children and their activitiesthroughout the day. Therefore, in Bangalore it is typically easier for youths toengage in behavior that may not be acceptable to their parents.
Culturally too,it is considered quite acceptable for youths to move in groups consisting ofmales and females. Therefore, it iseasier to find them spending time together in groups at street-side fashion andfood shops, cafes, multiplexes, malls, beaches or at nightclubs. But someyouths may be total opposite of that Because the youths in Bangalore have different lifestyles and live indifferent socio-cultural environment, it is assumed that although they will usemobile applications for consuming newsin digital more than papers , there may be differences. For example, since youthsin shanthi nagar have less opportunityfor consuming news through mobile applications, so they might use newspapersmore than use of mobile apps or online platform comparing to jaya nagar youthsThe next section provides a definition of gender andgives some examples of why males and females in the youth age-group may differin India and in the Bangalore.
1.6.GENDER The concept of gender is used to differentiate betweenmen and women according to social and cultural norms (Oxford dictionary)Since India is a diverse society, there aredifferent socio cultural rules for males and females. For example, parents typicallypay more attention to education of malechild than female child. The next section provides a background of mobile newsapplication and newspapers in India andin Bangalore and thedefinition of mobile app and newspaperused in this study. 1.
7.MOBILEAPPLICATION:An application, especially asdownloaded by a user to a mobile device.( oxford dic.)Mobile applications have changedthe information era completely yet more impact on youths in 21stcentury, mobile applications are easy and fast comparing print in delivering of news or passing theinformation. Oscarwestlund (2012), mobile news consumption started in 1990s , however the hugeswift from print to online was because of application development in 1990s , inpresent day progressively expanding the digital media is unstoppable. Yet ininformation era people mostly youths tend to use mobile news rather than printnews. 1.7.
1. mobile news consumption : In present era consuming news is common, Oscarwestlund (2012), yet all started in 2007 by Dangens nayherter who made a first launch ofnews online partnering with nokia and Pan-European telecommunications operator with an exclusiveflat-rate subscription to give a birthright to news media in history. Mobile news consumption is easy and fast comparingto print medium hence the growth of online consumption is increasing rapidly.
Printmay die but not the technology . 1.8.NEWSPAPER:Newspapers arehelping hand of every educated individual in India.
With rising literacy risethe demand of newspapers in our country. In 1976, the literacy rate acrossIndia was not more than 35% (aprox). However, there was a remarkable increasein 2008 the figure was 74% by 2011. Rising youth literacy at the rate of 84%was a clear indication of rising number of potential readers. James AugustusHickey is considered as the “father of Indian press” as he was thefounder of the first Indian newspaper from Calcutta, the `Bengal Gazette` orthe `Calcutta General Advertise` in January 1780.
In 1789, the first newspaperfrom Bombay, the `Bombay Herald` was released, followed by the `Bombay Courier`next year. This newspaper was later merged with the `Times of India` in 1861 of’Bennet, Coleman & Co. Ltd. publishing firm.The first newspaperin an Indian language was in Bengali, named as the `Samachar Darpan`.The firstissue of this daily was published from the Serampore Mission Press on May23,1818.
In the very same year, Ganga Kishore Bhattacharya started publishinganother newspaper in Bengali, the Bengal Gazetti. On July 1, 1822 the firstGujarati newspaper was published from Bombay, called the Bombay Samachar, whichis still existent. The first Hindi newspaper, the Samachar Sudha Varshan beganin 1854. Since then, the prominent Indian languages in which newspapers havegrown over the years are Hindi, Malayalam, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Telugu,Bengali and many other vernaculars.1.8.1.
INDIANNEWS READERSHIP:The 2010 IndianReadership Survey findings shows that the largest read local languagenewspapers to be Dainik Jagran (with 16.0 million readers) and Dainik Bhaskar(with 13.5 million readers), both published in Hindi. The Times of India is themost widely read English language newspaper ( 7.
900 million), followed byHindustan Times (3.9 million),The Hindu(1.8 million),Eenadu (1.7 million), TheSakshi (1.45 million). Malayala Manorama newspaper which is published inMalayalam from currently has a readership of over 9.
9 million (with acirculation base of over 2 million copies) has the most circulation in otherlanguages.However, in my study I would be concentrating on the readership in detail.The next section describes the theoreticalperspectives used in this study to understand theTheoretical approaches in the young people in India. 1.10.TheoreticalApproaches Used in the Study This case study uses three theoretical frameworks tounderstand the use of mobile news application by young people in India. Thefirst perspective used in this study is the uses and approach, which suggests that the latest research by the internet and mobile association of India (IAMAI) and IMRBinternational shows that the Internet usage in India has gone up by 32 percentfrom October 2013 to October 2014. Asper the latest report of IAMAI, 402 million people will use Internet byDecember 2015, and india in2017 is 2nd largest online users next tochina.
India overtaken the US Internetusers. This research was conducted to examine the online reader’s age group,who readprint and online newspapers. This study will provide the overview ofdisplacement of print media among various age group e readers. It will help toimprove the future of online journalism in India.The second perspective used in this study is socialcognitive domain theory from human development studies.
This theory propose thatindividuals use personal, social conventional and moral reasoning to evaluate and think aboutcomplex events (Killen, 2007; Turiel, 2006). previous research has shown thatyouth use these different forms of personal, conventional, and moral, reasoningwhen reflecting on their video game usage , by Brenick, Henning, Killen,O’Connor, & Collins, (2007); Henning, etal., (2009). Further, the theoryalso suggests that individuals in all cultures develop individualistic andcollectivistic concerns (Turiel, 1983). Thus individuals living in collectiveculture such as India also developconcerns with personal freedom and autonomy, but they may not choose toarticulate their individual selves to fit in society. In the present study, themodel was employed to assess how young adults think about cell phone and application use to fulfill age related developmental needs such asexpressing individuality, negotiating independence from parents and maintainingfriendships.
In this study, the model was employed to assume that youths willuse all the three different forms of reasoning especially in their use ofmobile phones and applications tofulfill age related needs. 1.11.SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS To understand ,why youths now spend alot of time reading news from a mobileapplications.
To understand how Mobile news applications continues to advance,interfaces become increasingly intuitive and personal preferences change fromearly exposure to reading on a mobile news applications 1.12.SIGNIFICANCEOF THE STUDY This study uncovers a universal patternregarding the birth of Internet revolutionized a lot many things.
It haschanged the way people communicate and it has changed the way people look forinformation. It has had an impact on various industries. Newspapers &magazines are losing the reader base to online news applications- newswebsites, audio podcasts and videos. The Internet has changed the habits ofpeople. Convenience and user-friendliness are the biggest contributing factorsin this change. But has this changed the habits of news consumption of people?Has the majority moved to consuming news offline? Or does the age of the personmake a difference? Habits influence offline news consumption behaviors. Theyare shaped by what was dominant in the news media landscape in which the personwas born. If a person was born in the pre-Internet era when the newspapers weredominant, then chances are high that the person shall remain an offline newsconsumer even in the era of the Internet.
The question of whether online newsmedia will kill newspaper will be solely dependent on how the habits of peoplechange, This study will give abrief analysis about it. Reference 1. (www.censusindia.gov.in)2.
AngelaM. Lee, Michael X. Delli Carpini, “News Consumption Revisited: Examining thePower of Habits in the 21st Century”, 20104. Arnett,J. J.
(2003). Conceptions of the transition to adulthood among emerging adultsin American ethnic groups. NewDirections for Child and Adolescent Development, 100.5. Oscarwestlund , 2012, Digital journalism, volume 1,pg (6-26)