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1.Introduction

In Bangalore, clearly indicates  that mobile application and newspaper  play a crucial  role in their life and they use them for  media related activities such as accessing
news, watching news online and using to gain information every day as possible.
The Internet provides the practical capability for a user to read any source ,
examine its sources, and interact through a natural medium that other media do
not provide. A newspaper’s Web site can provide e-mail addresses or discussion
forums that make journalists accessible while fostering community discussion. A
site can offer audio clips from interviews, text of government records, and
interactive maps that all can change the way a reader understands a story.

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With the discovery of
the online apps or internet,  newspapers
have faced challenges over the decades, yet publishers have always adopted and
prevented. However the news apps is proving to be a far more dangerous foe to
the  traditional newspaper model, faced
with such an adversary, small and large news paper alike may have no choice but
to abandon their traditional method, for a more innovative approach .

Newspapers have a
tradition of seeking, gathering, processing, and producing news in a one-way
daily delivery, but the Internet can give users the ability to make the
reporting process more transparent if site visitors can see, hear, or read the
sources reporters relied on. In order to get to a point where sites make full
use of the online functions that make the Web unique.

The Internet opens a
lot of opportunities, creates  a lot
of  new mobile apps for the distribution
of news media. Initially there are 
limited number of paper and  local
publications these days. The news media industry expected a revolution in the
way news was collected, published, distributed and consumed, with the dawn of
Internet.  There have been several
discussions about the future of journalism like, how online media will have an
effect on newspaper, will newspaper may die, because of the rise of online
media. Much of this discussion has proven to be myth. Online media hasn’t
killed newspaper completely. It seems they both have an enough audience to
survive for many more years to come. It is easy to observe that people of a
particular age group choose offline over online media, and people belonging to
another age group will choose vice versa. This choice is driven by their habits
as has been observed by Lee & Delli Carpini(2010), in their research.

The question is how has
online news media made a difference in the news consumption  habits of people. This paper tries to look in
depth at what role does habits have to play in consumption of news online and
paper. The growth of mobile phones in India and in particular their popularity
and use by young people in India has been the object of international and
national media attention in the past few years. The Internet as a lot of
opportunities, and creates a lot of new ways for giving out  news in mediums.

 

1.2.PURPOSE
OF THE STUDY

The main objective of this case study is to examine
the use of mobile application or newspaper as main medium to consume news by young
people between the ages of 18-25 living or studying in the city of Bangalore in
India. The following discussion first provides a background on India and the city
of  Bangalore. It provides a explanation of
young adults in Bangalore. It then provides a definition of gender used in this
study. Then it provides a background on mobile application in India and the
definition of  mobile application used in
this study.

 

 

 

1.2.INDIA
:

India is a vast country divided in 28 states, nine
union territories and 593 districts (www.censusindia.gov.in). In each of these
states, people speak different languages and practice different cultural
customs and practices. For example, there are at least 29 languages and over
200 dialects spoken all over India. As a result, cultural variations exit within
India. Therefore, there are likely to be differences in the use of mobile
application or newspapers within different parts of India. For this study,
Bangalore is selected to see if the individuals living in these city,  located in different area use mobile phones
differently. 

I choose this, one city Bangalore  for a variety of reasons. First, it was
convenient for me to do research in these city because I have family and
friends with whom I could stay during the course of my research and who could
help me find interviewees. Second, I have had the experience of growing up and
living in these city, so I was  quite
familiar with the differences in cultural surroundings in these city. For example,
in Bangalore,  it is quite common for
young people to party late at  night in
one of the numerous night clubs or go out on a date even if their families
don’t approve of it, because Bangalore  is such a big city it is difficult for parents
to know what their children are doing when they are away from home. The third
important factor was to come across in urban surroundings in these city also  in their urban ecology and socio cultural surroundings
is given below.

 

 

 

 

1.3.BANGALORE

(https://www.bangaloreone.gov.in/public/govtsites.aspx)Bangalore,
also known as

Bengaluru (Kannada) is the capital of the
Indian State of Karnataka.

Bangalore is nicknamed  the Garden City and was once called a
Pensioner’s Paradise.

Located on the Deccan Plateau in the
south-eastern part of Karnataka, Bangalore

is India’s third most crowded city. There
are a number of expats from across the world

living in the city, thanks to the growing
presence of Multi-National Companies. Today as a large city and growing
metropolis, Bangalore is home to many of the most well-recognized colleges and
research institutions in India. Numerous public sector heavy industries,
software companies,

aerospace, telecommunications, and defense
organizations are located in the city.

Bangalore is known as the Silicon Valley of
India because of its position as the nation’s

leading IT exporter. A demographically
diverse city, Bangalore is a major economic and

cultural hub and the fastest growing major
metropolis in India. The city chosen for this study provides a good example for
comparing within city differences regarding the use of mobile application an
newspapers. The next section provides the definition of young adults and
describes the differences among young people in Bangalore.

 

 

1.4.YOUTHS          

 “Youths” in
this study refers to individuals, who are in the age-group of 18-25 years. Developmental
psychologists define this life-stage of individuals as a transitory period
between adolescence and adulthood (Arnett, 2000), also suggests that in modern-day
western societies, the stage of teenage years is extended as most individuals
do not fulfill the criteria required to achieve maturity such as marriage,
financial independence and completion of education. Therefore, this period
allows young people to prolong their identity explorations, especially in the
areas of love, work and worldview. Therefore, young people continue their
search for personal identity, friendships, romantic partners and struggle for
independence in order to assume adult roles and responsibilities by the end of
their 20s. By 2020, India’s  share of youth in its total population is
expected to be 34..33 per cent, according to data survey conducted in 2016,
from the Central Statistics Office.

On average, by the age of 18, individuals make an
important transition from school to college life in most countries. However,
the exact age of this change may vary. While in western countries, young adults
leave home and start their college life on college campuses, in India majority
of young adults continue to live with their parents unless they go out of town
for their studies. While
in countries such as United States, young people live on college campuses they
are fairly independent from parents, whereas in India, since young adults
continue to live with their parents, there is more interference from parents in
the life choices they make. For example, the common cultural standard of
arranged marriages in India shows that parents choose a marriage partner for
their children. Further, in traditional Indian culture it is not considered
appropriate for young males and females to socialize with each other, also
dating and flirting is not considered appropriate. However, in the recent past,
due to modernization these cultural rules are changing, this change is uneven
across country. In larger cities which are more modernized, the traditional
rules have changed far more than in smaller cities, where the

culture is more traditional. In this study, it is
assumed that since BANGALORE provides different cultural environments, young
people in  these city will behave
differently. The next section describes youth  in Bangalore.

 

 

 

1.5.BANGALORE
YOUTH :

In Bangalore, most children make the transition from
school to college around the age of 16 years once they complete their high
school, that is, 10th grade. Most  youths   obtain there higher secondary education (11th
and 12th grade) in colleges. However, they continue to live with their parents
throughout their higher education. Because Bangalore has many educational institutes
offering a variety of vocational and professional courses, young people from
all over the country travel to Bangalore to seek higher education. The students
who come from outside Bangalore  usually
live in a hostel or rent an apartment with friends. This study is mainly
concerned about

all young people in Bangalore, a typical day in the
life of college-going youths involves leaving  home early in the morning and reaching back
home in late evening. Usually young  people
travel by local trains and buses across the city. Throughout the day, they
either attend lectures or spend time with friends. Because Bangalore is large,
it is difficult for parents to keep an eye on children and their activities
throughout the day. Therefore, in  Bangalore
 it is typically easier for youths to
engage in behavior that may not be acceptable to their parents. Culturally too,
it is considered quite acceptable for youths to move in groups consisting of
males and females.  Therefore, it is
easier to find them spending time together in groups at street-side fashion and
food shops, cafes, multiplexes, malls, beaches or at nightclubs. But some
youths may be total opposite of that

Because the youths in Bangalore  have different lifestyles and live in
different socio-cultural environment, it is assumed that although they will use
mobile applications  for consuming news
in digital more than papers , there may be differences. For example, since youths
in shanthi nagar  have less opportunity
for consuming news through mobile applications, so they might use newspapers
more than use of mobile apps or online platform comparing to jaya nagar youths

The next section provides a definition of gender and
gives some examples of why males and females in the youth age-group may differ
in India and in the Bangalore.

 

1.6.GENDER 

The concept of gender is used to differentiate between
men and women according to social and cultural norms (Oxford dictionary)

Since India is a diverse society, there are
different socio cultural rules for

males and females. For example, parents typically
pay more attention to education of  male
child than female child. The next section provides a background of mobile news
application and newspapers  in India and
in  Bangalore  and  the
definition of  mobile app and newspaper
used in this study.

 

 

1.7.MOBILE
APPLICATION:

An application, especially as
downloaded by a user to a mobile device.( oxford dic.)

Mobile applications have changed
the information era completely yet more impact on youths in 21st
century, mobile applications are easy and fast comparing  print in delivering of news or passing the
information.  

 Oscar
westlund (2012), mobile news consumption started in 1990s , however the huge
swift from print to online was because of application development in 1990s , in
present day progressively expanding the digital media is unstoppable. Yet in
information era people mostly youths tend to use mobile news rather than print
news.

1.7.1. mobile news consumption :

  In present era consuming news is common, Oscar
westlund (2012), yet all started in 2007 by

  Dangens nayherter who made a first launch of
news online partnering with nokia and  Pan-European
 telecommunications operator with an exclusive
flat-rate subscription  to  give a birthright to news media in history.  Mobile news consumption is easy and fast comparing
to print medium hence the growth of online consumption is increasing rapidly. Print
may die but not the technology .

 

1.8.NEWSPAPER:

Newspapers are
helping hand of every educated individual in India. With rising literacy rise
the demand of newspapers in our country. In 1976, the literacy rate across
India was not more than 35% (aprox). However, there was a remarkable increase
in 2008 the figure was 74% by 2011. Rising youth literacy at the rate of 84%
was a clear indication of rising number of potential readers. James Augustus
Hickey is considered as the “father of Indian press” as he was the
founder of the first Indian newspaper from Calcutta, the `Bengal Gazette` or
the `Calcutta General Advertise` in January 1780.In 1789, the first newspaper
from Bombay, the `Bombay Herald` was released, followed by the `Bombay Courier`
next year. This newspaper was later merged with the `Times of India` in 1861 of
‘Bennet, Coleman & Co. Ltd. publishing firm.

The first newspaper
in an Indian language was in Bengali, named as the `Samachar Darpan`.The first
issue of this daily was published from the Serampore Mission Press on May
23,1818. In the very same year, Ganga Kishore Bhattacharya started publishing
another newspaper in Bengali, the Bengal Gazetti. On July 1, 1822 the first
Gujarati newspaper was published from Bombay, called the Bombay Samachar, which
is still existent. The first Hindi newspaper, the Samachar Sudha Varshan began
in 1854. Since then, the prominent Indian languages in which newspapers have
grown over the years are Hindi, Malayalam, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Telugu,
Bengali and many other vernaculars.

1.8.1.INDIAN
NEWS READERSHIP:

The 2010 Indian
Readership Survey findings shows that the largest read local language
newspapers to be Dainik Jagran (with 16.0 million readers) and Dainik Bhaskar
(with 13.5 million readers), both published in Hindi. The Times of India is the
most widely read English language newspaper ( 7.900 million), followed by
Hindustan Times (3.9 million),The Hindu(1.8 million),Eenadu (1.7 million), The
Sakshi (1.45 million). Malayala Manorama newspaper which is published in
Malayalam from currently has a readership of over 9.9 million (with a
circulation base of over 2 million copies) has the most circulation in other
languages.However, in my study I would be concentrating on the readership in detail.

The next section describes the theoretical
perspectives used in this study to understand the

Theoretical approaches  in the young people in India.

 

 

 

 

1.10.Theoretical
Approaches Used in the Study

 

This case study uses three theoretical frameworks to
understand the use of mobile news application by young people in India. The
first perspective used in this study is the uses and  approach,  which suggests that  the latest research by the internet and  mobile association of India (IAMAI) and IMRB
international shows that the Internet usage in India has gone up by 32 percent
from  October 2013 to October 2014. As
per the latest report of IAMAI, 402 million people will use Internet by
December 2015, and india in2017 is 2nd largest online users next to
china. India overtaken  the US Internet
users. This research was conducted to examine the online reader’s age group,
who read
print and online newspapers. This study will provide the overview of
displacement of print media among various age group e readers. It will help to
improve the future of online journalism in India.

The second perspective used in this study is social
cognitive domain theory

from human development studies. This theory propose that
individuals use personal, social conventional and  moral reasoning to evaluate and think about
complex events (Killen, 2007; Turiel, 2006). previous research has shown that
youth use these different forms of personal, conventional, and moral, reasoning
when reflecting on their video game usage , by Brenick, Henning, Killen,
O’Connor, & Collins, (2007); Henning, etal., (2009). Further, the theory
also suggests that individuals in all cultures develop individualistic and
collectivistic concerns (Turiel, 1983). Thus individuals living in collective
culture  such as India also develop
concerns with personal freedom and autonomy, but they may not choose to
articulate their individual selves to fit in society. In the present study, the
model was employed to assess how young adults think about cell  phone and 
application use to fulfill age related developmental needs such as
expressing individuality, negotiating independence from parents and maintaining
friendships. In this study, the model was employed to assume that youths will
use all the three different forms of reasoning especially in their use of
mobile phones and applications  to
fulfill age related needs.

 

 

1.11.
SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS

            To understand ,why youths now spend a
lot of time reading news from a  mobile
applications.

            
To understand how Mobile news applications continues to advance,
interfaces become increasingly intuitive and personal preferences change from
early exposure to reading on a mobile news applications

 

1.12.SIGNIFICANCE
OF THE STUDY

 This study uncovers a universal pattern
regarding the birth of Internet revolutionized a lot many things. It has
changed the way people communicate and it has changed the way people look for
information. It has had an impact on various industries. Newspapers &
magazines are losing the reader base to online news applications- news
websites, audio podcasts and videos. The Internet has changed the habits of
people. Convenience and user-friendliness are the biggest contributing factors
in this change. But has this changed the habits of news consumption of people?
Has the majority moved to consuming news offline? Or does the age of the person
make a difference? Habits influence offline news consumption behaviors. They
are shaped by what was dominant in the news media landscape in which the person
was born. If a person was born in the pre-Internet era when the newspapers were
dominant, then chances are high that the person shall remain an offline news
consumer even in the era of the Internet. The question of whether online news
media will kill newspaper will be solely dependent on how the habits of people
change, This study will give a
brief analysis about it.

 

 

 

 

Reference

1.       (www.censusindia.gov.in)

2.      https://www.bangaloreone.gov.in/public/govtsites.aspx)

3.      Angela
M. Lee, Michael X. Delli Carpini, “News Consumption Revisited: Examining the
Power of Habits in the 21st Century”, 2010

4.      Arnett,
J. J. (2003). Conceptions of the transition to adulthood among emerging adults
in  American ethnic groups. New
Directions for Child and Adolescent Development,  100.

5.      Oscar
westlund , 2012, Digital journalism, volume 1,pg (6-26) 

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