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1.  a.  
Stereotype is defined as a preconceived notion about a group of people.
An example of a stereotype would be that black people always run late.

Bias is defined as a preference for one thing over another. For example,
a person goes in for an interview but the interviewer chooses to employ a long
time friend rather than the person who could potentially be more qualified for
the job.

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Racism is defined as the practice of discriminating against people based
on their race, national or ethnic background. An example of this would be when
a Middle Eastern woman is asked to move from her seat on an airplane because a
white woman is uncomfortable sitting next to her.

d.     Sexism is defined as discrimination
against people because of their sex. An example of sexism is when women are
paid less than men though they are doing the same kind of work.

e.     Classism is defined as prejudice or
discrimination based on class. An example of this if an middle class family is
turned away from a free food bank ministry because they have a higher income
than a lower class family.

f.      Ableism is defined as discrimination or
prejudice against individuals with disabilities.  An example of this is when a coach doesn’t a
child with autism join a football team because he thinks that the child would not
be beneficial for the team.

g.   Heterosexism is discrimination in favor of
heterosexual and against homosexual people. An example of this would be the ban
against lesbian and gay personnel in the military.

h.   Prejudice is a negative attitude towards a
group of people based on race. An example of prejudice is when a child is
bullied because they are Mexican.

i.   Discrimination is the unfair system that
treats one group of people worse than another. An example of discrimination
would be a person not getting a promotion because she is pregnant.

j. Culture is the customary beliefs, social
forms, and material traits of a racial, religious, or social group. For
example, women in Islam dress modestly in their culture.

k. Cultural Competence is the ability to understand,
appreciate, and interact with persons from cultures and/or belief systems other
than one’s own. An example of cultural competence is someone who has increased
flexibility and openness of other cultures and also exercises non-judgmental

l. Ethnocentrism is the
belief in the superiority of one’s own ethnic group.

m. Bigotry is a
stubborn and complete intolerance of any creed, belief, and opinion that
differs from one’s own. An example of bigotry is when Donald Trump expressed in
his 2016 campaign that Mexican immigrants are rapists and criminals.

n. Implicit bias refers
to the attitudes or stereotypes that affect our understanding, actions, and
decisions in an unconscious manner. An example of this is when a black family
is seeking to move in a house and they come across in a predominantly Latino
neighborhood where the price fits their budget but decides not to move in that
area because there weren’t people of their own race living there.

Understanding Implicit Bias

o. Tolerance is the
willingness to recognize and respect the beliefs or practices of others.  An example of tolerance is when a Christian
and Jehovah Witness respects eachothers beliefs and can become good friends.

2.      I’ve lived in the same neighborhood ever
since I was born so when I reflect back on what stereotypes and expressions of
racism exist where I grew up and how it is now, it has definitely evolved. As a
child, one stereotype that was prevalent was that black girls have “nappy” hair
and their hair can’t grow as long as white girls. Another stereotype that arose
was if you live in a certain area in the neighborhood, it was considered
ghetto. As I got older, I used to have a lot of white friends so when my black friends
became aware of that, they thought I “acted” like white people and assumed that
I wanted to be white. The stereotype that exists in my life now is that black women
have attitudes that make black men not want to date them resulting in them
dating white women instead. Another stereotype that exists is that black men
who let their pants sag are considered uneducated and poor.

3. A couple years ago, my
sisters and I have encountered an experience where we felt prejudged. We walked
into a store with an item we wanted to exchange and not even five minutes into
shopping, we were stopped by an associate informing us that they had to hold
our shopping bag at the counter. As we were listening to her reason, I noticed
there were other customers that were holding shopping bags while they were
shopping. So many emotions went through my mind that moment; I felt angry,
confused, and sad at the fact that we weren’t even in the store for more than
five minutes and we were under the assumption of stealing. In the end, we
decided just to leave the store without exchanging our item.

4a.  America was founded upon racism and
discrimination.  The American Indian was
one of the first races to experience racism first hand.  Then slave owners went to Africa to bring
black people to America and enslave them to work in the fields.  Therefore, we still suffer from one race  dominating the other and not allowing
everyone black, white yellow or brown to have equal opportunities.  I do not believe that the racial atmosphere
has improved.  It is pretty evident that
the racial atmosphere hasn’t improved because black men and women are being
racially profiled every day, white police men are wrongfully shooting and
killing black men and not getting convicted, the president has made racial
remarks which has contributed to divisions in the country, and different races
who were born in the US are being deported.

4b. There have been
programs established to help with discrimination like Equal Employment
Opportunity Commission which enforces federal laws prohibiting workplace
discrimination.  It was created by the
Civil Rights Act of 1964. Also, the Affirmative Action executive order which
was to ensure that applicants are employed and employees are treated during
employment, without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin.

These solutions have
helped those minorities who would have been underrepresented to be able to get
jobs and into colleges that otherwise would have been closed to those

4c.  My solution to how racism can be improved is
that children should be educated as early as kindergarten on the need to see
all people as equal.  In the businesses,
CEO’s should hold  seminars, educational  classes 
that would help managers open up opportunities to all races and allow a
mixture of races in leadership positions. 
This must all take place from the government on down to state agencies.

5a.  My first thought of what causes is that we
are a very proud people who fear differences and are unwilling to trust others
that may have different ideas that we have. 
Racism exists because we live in a fallen, troubled world and it’s hard
for people to recognize that everyone is equal no matter the color of the skin.

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