1. A combat patrol provides security and harasses, destroys, or captures enemy troops, equipment, or installations.
When the commander gives a unit the mission to send out a combat patrol, he or she intends for the patrol to make contact with the enemy and engage in close combat. A combat patrol always tries to remain undetected while moving, but when it discloses its location to the enemy it is with a sudden and violent attack. For this reason, the patrol normally carries a significant amount of weapons and ammunition.
A combat patrol collects and reports information gathered during the mission. The three types of combat patrols are raid, ambush, and security patrol. Raids are surprise attacks against a position or installation for a specific purpose other than seizing and holding the terrain. It is conducted to destroy a position or installation, to destroy or capture enemy soldiers or equipment, or to free prisoners. A raid patrol retains terrain just long enough to accomplish the intent of the raid. A raid always ends with a planned withdrawal off the objective and a return to the main body.
An ambush is a surprise attack from a concealed position on a moving or temporarily halted target. An ambush patrol does not need to seize or hold terrain. It can include an assault to close with and destroy the target, or an attack by fire only. A security patrol is sent out from a unit location when the unit is stationary or during a halt to search the local area, detect enemy forces near the main body, and to engage and destroy the enemy within the capability of the patrol. This form of combat patrol normally is sent out by units operating in close terrain with limited fields of observation and fire.
Although this form of combat patrol seeks to make direct enemy contact and to destroy enemy forces within its capability, it should try to avoid decisive engagement. A security patrol detects and disrupts enemy forces conducting reconnaissance of the main body or massing to conduct an attack. Security patrols normally are away from the main body of the unit for limited periods, returning frequently to coordinate and rest. They do not operate beyond the range of communications and supporting fires from the main body.2.
3. Troop movement is the movement of troops from one place to another by any available means. The ability to posture the force for a decisive or shaping operation depends on the capability to conduct rapid and orderly movement to concentrate the effects of combat power at decisive points and times. Movement places troops and equipment at their destination at the proper time, ready for combat. Troop movements are made by dismounted and mounted marches using combat vehicles and motor transport, as well as air, rail, and water means in various combinations.
The method employed depends on the situation, size and composition of the moving unit, distance the unit must cover, urgency of execution, and condition of the troops. It also depends on the availability, suitability, and capacity of the different means of transportation. Troop movements over extended distances have extensive sustainment considerations. Dismounted and mounted marches can be hurried when necessary by conducting a forced march. The three types of troop movement are administrative movement, tactical road march, and approach march. First, an administrative movement is a movement in which troops and vehicles are arranged to expedite their movement and conserve time and energy when no enemy ground interference, except by air, is anticipated. Administrative movements only are conducted in secure areas.
They include rail and highway movement within the United States. Once deployed into war, administrative movements normally are not conducted. Next, a tactical road march is a rapid movement used to relocate units within area of operation to prepare for combat operations. Units maintain security against enemy air attack and prepare to take immediate action against an enemy ambush, although they do not expect contact with significant enemy ground forces. The primary consideration of the tactical road march is rapid movement. However, the moving force employs security measures, even when contact with enemy ground forces is not expected. During a tactical road march, the unit always is prepared to take immediate action if the enemy attacks.
Lastly, an approach march is the advance of a combat unit when direct contact with the enemy is intended. However, it emphasizes speed over tactical deployment. The approach march is employed when the enemy’s approximate location is known, since it allows the force to move with greater speed and less physical security or dispersion. In an approach march, units are task-organized to allow them to transition to an on-order or a be-prepared mission without making major organizational adjustments. The approach march ends in a march objective, such as an attack position, or assault position, or it can be used to transition to an attack.
I think that administrative movements are the safest because they are only conducted in secure areas, such as rail and highway movement in the United States.