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• Acknowledgements
Preparing this project paper would not have been achievable devoid of the support of various contributors. Numerous individuals aided the author in diverse ways through countless phases of this study work. Even though it is unfeasible to state them all by designations, the author believes it is ideal to recognise a few. Therefore, the author desires to show appreciation and gratefulness to the following individuals for their positive impacts towards the writing of this Project Paper.
The Module Lecturer Mr Caiphas Chekwoti for the direction to gain knowledge and for his great assistance during the study of the module; and the respondents of the survey and interviews in both private and public organisations.
The stratification of the respondents was done to successfully elicit information from different individuals with diverse background in the society who are acquainted and have good understanding of the subject of economics, energy and electricity mechanisms.
Miss Chifundo F. Kamugundu for her unwavering encouragement and generosity; and coaching activities of morals, self-sacrifice and dedication;
Similarly, the author would like to thank the officers from the Electricity Supply Corporation of Malawi (ESCOM), and Ministry of the Energy and Mining. Without their attention and support, this project paper would not have been achievable in the first place. It was enthralling to experience a glimpse of the procedural mechanisms of the diverse institutions and to share knowledge on the energy and electricity subject.
A unique honour is that the author had the opportunity to obtain support from the Principal Secretary (PS) in the Ministry of Mining and Energy, Mr Patrick Matanda. The author would like to express appreciation for his help in finding contacts in the energy industry and significant data.
The author would like also to thank the Energy Generation Company (EGENCO); which made it possible for the attendance of the symposium on Energy supply in the month of March 2018. It gave a platform for the author to gain first insights into the topic but also listened to various participants operational in the field, imparting knowledge and sharing proposals.

• Disclaimer
The author declares no conflict of interest.
The author affirms that this Project Paper is his own product and it is being
submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of ESAMI’s degree of Masters of
Business Administration (MBA) program.
The author, therefore, is accountable for the views and ideas stated therein and consequently do not necessarily denote those of the Institute.
• Abbreviations
o ADB – Africa Development Bank
o AU- African Union
o CBO -Community Based Organization
o DFID -Department for International Development
o EGENCO -Energy Generation Company
o ESCOM -Electricity Supply Corporation of Malawi
o EU -European Union
o GDP- Gross Domestic Product
o HDI -Human Development Index
o Kv – Kilovolt
o KVA – kilovolt-ampere
o kWh- Kilowatt Hour
o kWh -Kilowatt-hour
o MDGs- Millennium Development Goals
o ME -Micro – Enterprise
o SWOT – Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats
o U.N – United Nations
o WHO -World Health Organization

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• Acknowledgements 1
• Abbreviations 2
• Abstract 4
1. Introduction 5
2. The Background to the Problem 6
2.1. The Statement of the Problem 7
3. The Objective (s) of the Study 8
4. The Research Questions 8
5. The Significance/Justification 9
6. The Scope of the study 10
6.1. The Study area: Lilongwe City’s CBD. 10
7. Literature Review. 10
7.1. Characterising Interruptions 11
7.2. Quantifying Power Interruption Costs 11
8. Proposed Methodology and Data Collection 12
8.1. Case Studies 12
8.2. Consumer Surveys 12
8.3. Ethical Considerations 12
9. Proposed Structure/ Outline of the study 13
10. The Conclusion 14
10.1. Possible constraints of the Study 14
11. Bibliography 15
12. Appendices 17
12.1. Appendix I: Map of Lilongwe showing the Study Area 17
12.2. Appendix II. Photos depicting some of Micro-economic enterprises 18
12.3. Appendix III. The research Onion 19
12.4. Appendix IV. Project Paper (Question Paper) 20

• Abstract
The Nation Newspaper of Malawi previously presented an editorial on energy and electricity subject and in this article, the publisher questioned one of the energy officials concerning the effect of electricity on the economy. The official replied that the blackouts possess no huge effect because the current loading shedding system gives each commercial entity to make use of energy in accordance to the electricity supplier’s program. Obviously, this officer’s opinion did not reflect power outage effect for people living in the rural and peri-urban regions, where outage periods are known to overextend into many weeks. He has not had to sprint to his car to power up his smartphone in order to communicate with the outer world, neither was he reliant on the internet to perform his regular labour routines.
The author was at first tempted to express notion without even reasoning, the effect of electricity on the economy does be existent but then thought again that this would not be any different to telling a six-year-old, under the web of a starry night sky; the existence of a building size snake eating the village elder’s food on the African thorn tree. Consecutively to understand the true impact of the electricity supply problem on socio-economic environment, an inclusive investigation requires to be performed and assessment of the assembled data accomplished to draw final decree on the subject.
The enormous interruption supply of electricity has turn out to be a frequent incidence all over the nation of Malawi. Even though the significance of the so called blackout crisis is indisputable; to our understanding, a detailed assessment of the associated economic and social effects is absent in the current literature. The purpose of this project paper is, therefore, to introductory make ready for an all-inclusive research on how to seal the gap by researching the economic and social costs of power outages by means of composed survey data in Lilongwe the capital city of Malawi (Orcher, L. (2007)
The precise objectives of the study are; to construct a comprehension of the demographic and socio-economic effect of the power outages on the Micro-enterprises; to understand the problems, they encounter and set a platform for the authorities to grasp on how to develop their situation based on the discovered factors and causes of power outages in Lilongwe, Malawi.
1. Introduction
Research depicts that the deficiency of electrical energy supply is a main obstacle of poverty alleviation in developing nations. Malawi is at present undergoing the worst electricity crisis in its lifetime, which has caused enormous day-to-day blackouts.
The availability of energy supply is one of the essential element in the planning and policy formulation of the energy system. Nevertheless, the value the community consider on the energy system might not be easily identified. The evaluation of the socio-economic costs of power outages is a significant initial stage towards verifying the socially ideal levels of blackouts. This type of evaluation demands to go beyond an authentic emphasis on economic damages alone but requires to embrace the inconvenience costs for the customers (Bose, R. K., Shukla M. ; Yaron G. 2006).
The possible approaches to quantitatively and qualitatively assess the impact of power outages are estimated to be examined and contrasted in this project paper. The significance of taking into account particulars of geographical locality and period of blackouts is emphasised by means of case studies. Guaranteeing a constant energy supply is critical for any progressive nation to perform in social, political and economic areas (United Nations 2013b). The demand for endeavours to make certain of adequate levels of viable electricity in the future is growing, mostly for the reason that the production and supply of energy are at present experiencing substantial restructuring. Despite the fact that fostering the essential procedures to safeguard the energy grid and prospect supply is predominantly a task for the engineering professionals, it is the role of economic enquiries to espouse the advancement of a scheme of inducements to offset conceivable market drawbacks and consequently empower the application of societally optimum procedures.
One significant necessity for emerging a proficient governing system is the capability to compute the cost of energy supply security. Considering that energy supply security comprises of a non-economical asset, which may be obtained only together with the physical product (to form electricity), the cost of electricity supply security cannot be easily established. This is the reason why frequently the collapse of energy supply, and in precise terms the cost of blackouts, is utilised to evaluate electricity supply security’s value. By means of contingent valuation technique, this project paper gives evidence that Lilongwe residents are prepared to pay more on top of their monthly power utility bills, to make certain of service consistency.
2. The Background to the Problem
Malawi’s energy utility supplier, the Electricity Corporation of Malawi (ESCOM),
articulates that the commercial and production industries must prepare themselves for further power failures as it appears to be no instantaneous remedy to resolve the electricity supply problems presently impinging on the southern African nation of 17 million ((Simon J.S., Zimmerman R., Restrepo C.E. et al. 2005)
Malawi is being subjected to an energy generation decline of about 69 percent making ESCOM’s production volume remain at 361 Megawatts (MW) emerging from all its electricity generation stations and diesel plants. ESCOM cautions that blackouts will prolong with projections of being at worse by the month of December on condition that water levels do not rise in the Shire River and Lake Malawi.
The water levels have hit their lowermost levels and at their worst in the past 15 years, causing it problematic for ESCOM to produce energy as about 90 percent of its energy is produced on the Shire River, the solitary outlet of Lake Malawi. ESCOM’s former chief executive officer John Kandulu elucidates that the water flow in the Shire is set to get worse in anticipation of the having adequate rainfall.
Most of the massive functioning problems are in the months of September and December as the lake levels are at their lowest and the nation is only capable to produce 153 Megawatts. This is turn relates to the 165 Megawatts of electricity production, which is a decrease of 67 percent from the overall volume. This is a serious state of affairs which might make it unfeasible for the nation to provide any basic service to the residents and industry for their production. Entrepreneurs and business executives express that the blackouts are costing them enormous amounts of money. The Malawi Confederation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry (MCCCI) articulates that ever since ESCOM decreased energy production levels, businesses may be generating about 40 percent to 80 percent of their ideal capability. The MCCCI claims that decreased production implies lessened products on the market giving rise to diminished turnover.
Decreased business production with a constant fixed costs, and decreased profits, have propelled some companies to reorganise themselves by reducing on staff, and even moving geographically out of the country. This is a critical matter that requires to be resolved urgently because it is essential for the big production industry to have constant supply of electricity power. Substitute energy sources are proving to be costlier and unsustainable over extensive periods of time (Yin Y., Guo J., Zhao J. ; Bu G. 2003)
In spite of ESCOM commencing several interventions to resolve the problem comprising of load shedding programmes for industries, the utilisation of power saving bulbs, electricity connections from other nations and the fitting of fuel generators; the country has not encountered progress in the energy supply. Research further depicts that the government of Malawi is again presently contemplating energy interconnector programme with the country of Mozambique – a development which was frozen by the former state president the late Bingu wa Mutharika. Apparently, he observed the interconnector as a very costly scheme that might not profit Malawi from a long term perspective. However, the ESCOM officials declares that the Mozambique-Malawi interconnector venture shall be implemented and it is anticipated to support the nation of Malawi to have access to the Southern Africa Power Pool (SAPP) industry via the Mozambique linked power network with the nations of Zimbabwe and South Africa.
It is likewise whispered that the nation of Malawi is also inclining its courage on the 22 number of Independent Power Producers (IPPs) such as Fichtner supposed to have engaged in an MOU with the nation of Malawi to generate a projected overall production capability of about 566 Megawatts through Hydro and Solar measures.
2.1. The Statement of the Problem
Access to up-to-date reasonable power services in third world countries is necessary for the accomplishment of the globally recognised development objectives, such as the Millennium Development Goals, and for attaining viable development (United Nations,2013a).
Malawi is presently experiencing the worst power or electricity catastrophe initiating a huge demand-supply gap. In addition to the unstable security circumstances, the insufficient provision of power services is one of the foremost difficulties that citizens and businesses are encountering. On a daily basis, the country is undergoing power outages with some districts having blackouts up to 18 hours. Subsequent to several years of declined government administration and high rise of corruption at public-sector parastatals, one may assume that it appears there shall be no immediate solution for the energy difficulties, and that electricity provision will persist to be severely limited into subsequent years and beyond.
3. The Objective (s) of the Study
The general objective of this study is to explore the experiences of energy consumers specifically the Micro-economic enterprises (see Appendix II) concerning power interruptions in Lilongwe, the capital city of Malawi using diverse methodologies, contribution ideas and theories from numerous sources. The particular SMART objectives of the study are:
? To explore the foremost factors and causes of power outages in Lilongwe/Malawi using a widespread analysis research.

? To build an understanding of the demographic and socio-economic effect of the power outages on the Micro-economic enterprises in Lilongwe, Malawi.

? To comprehend the challenges, they face and how they live to enable the engagement of diverse stakeholders and authorities to understanding how to improve their situation.
It is significant to observe that each of the above exclusive objectives will have a methodology to attempt to attain it as will be depicted in the later sections. The author’s enthusiasm and motivated of research are based on an understanding of how these small business consumers are coping up with prevailing blackouts and also his residing personal experience in Lilongwe, an area with higher power blackouts.
4. The Research Questions
The author’s motivation and interest led to the emergence of asking the following question; amongst rampant electricity interruptions “Does the current electricity power outages problem have a socio-economic cost on Micro-economic enterprises in Lilongwe, Malawi? which further led to the derivative of the following research questions guiding this overall study:
? What is the extent of the power outage problem in Malawi?
? how do the Micro-enterprises manage to run their production activities with no electricity and no alternative power sources?
? and if blackouts have a negative impact on ME’s, how may the problem of power outages be addressed from a long term and sustainable perspective?
5. The Significance/Justification
Selection of the perfect level of reliability to target for involves a comprehensive perception of the socio-economic costs of power provision disruptions, which may be extremely diverse contingent on the timing and nature of the consumer. For instance, despite the reality that a home may possibly not become aware of a power disruption for the duration of office hours, a business corporation incapable to electronically send a tender document in due course may possibly lose millions in Kwachas. The same may be valid to a functional malfunction of the hospital’s oxygen machine on a dying patient attributable to power interruptions.
There is limited detailed research while many suppositions on how ME’s in Lilongwe are coping with power outages; this study, therefore, seeks to contribute knowledge of the nexus between the electricity interruptions and the socio-economic impact on the Micro-economic enterprises (Reister D B. (1987).
Furthermore, it is anticipated that the study will impart useful information to the Ministry of Energy and Mining; The Ministry of Health, ESCOM and EGENCO Parastatals on the perceptions of ME’s on electricity interruptions. The insights may aid the government of Malawi to comprehend where the foremost drawback is and learn how to improve the status quo. It should be perceived that ME’s are the one of the crucial consumers of electricity and a key element to economic growth in Malawi and therefore they ought to not be disregarded. Every citizen may not need other professional involvement such as a lawyer or a blogger in their line of business but they shall definitely need to conduct business with ME’s once or several times in their lifetime hence the relevance. The government of Malawi may also utilise the information from this study and distribute resources to advance generation, diffusion and provision of power to the Lilongwe City, therefore, assisting the Micro enterprises in the line of business.
In addition, it is anticipated that the outcomes of this study would offer positive recommendations to the government of Malawi to permit more competition and privatisation in the power generation, diffusion and provision. ESCOM is the main producer and supplier of electricity in Malawi which sets a monopolistic atmosphere and complacency to supply their service. Consequently, in advancing the power service to the consumers, the nation might engross additional corporations in the energy sector (Smith J.C. 1985).
6. The Scope of the study
6.1. The Study area: Lilongwe City’s CBD.
This study is narrowed in Lilongwe District particularly the Central Business District Area (CBD’s) where there are recurrent disruptions in electricity. According to ESCOM, Lilongwe has the largest power demand in contrast to other districts due to the industrial Kanengo area and also because of the large number of urbanisation currently its experiencing for its growth in infrastructure development. This study will be further restricted to the central business district of Lilongwe which according to the NSO, hubs a numerous number of Micro-economic enterprises. The selection of the ME’s field was founded on the ME’s dependency on electricity as the only foremost source of energy for their operations. It is estimated that the study will have a sample size of about 381 to the ME’s population of about 50,000 with reference to the recommendations made by The NEA Research Bulletin, Vol. 38 (December 1960, p. 99).
7. Literature Review.
This chapter presents a brief assessment of significant up to date literature consecutively to better comprehend the contribution of electricity to the economic growth and development of a nation. It is necessary that the review focus on both macro and micro-level study examining the nexus between electricity supply and socio-economic development (Reister D B. 1987). Globally, the nations at large consider that the availability of electricity is an essential necessity for sustainable growth. The lack of access to electricity may possibly be an absolute indicator of poverty established contingent on the descriptions which signify living standards as for example, having adequate provision of electricity is encompassed in a newly distributed ‘Multidimensional Poverty Index’. (UNDP 2010) and as a perspicuous objective of national development strategies. It has also been observed that some of the reports that are available on the subject frequently have a deficiency of dependable approaches. (Meadows and Riley 2003). ADB (2005) and Estache (2010) expresses latest assessments of academic literature on the influence of infrastructure on poverty alleviation and mutually they deduce that most prevailing research on electrification influences are of ‘ vague value’ attributable to a sequence of inadequacies in the utilised approaches, for instance, the absence of control groups and/or before-after data and an overall failure to pursue the influences on the economy for long duration.
7.1. Characterising Interruptions
Preceding to approximating the costs of power disruptions process, it is beneficial to comprehend that the effects of power supply stoppages vary from one to another. Primarily, there are diverse varieties of end-users in the energy grid system. A power disruption in a health clinic has extremely diverse aftermaths than one in a factory, a household or as in our context a small business premise such as a shop.
7.2. Quantifying Power Interruption Costs
The economic literature delivers a well-defined difference of cost classifications connected with power outages. Damages because of power interruptions are usually categorised into three main classes: Direct costs; Indirect costs and Long-term costs of macroeconomic significance (Baarsma, B.E. & Hop, J.P. 2009). According to Beenstock, M., E. Goldin & Y. Haitovsky (1998), the general view or perception is that the direct economic damages are typically visible and easily recognised by consumers. They are a direct consequence of the failure, for instance, repair expenses for faulty electrical facilities. In spite of this, the direct economic damages are frequently partial and inferior to indirect economic costs. The indirect costs also result from in direct association with the blackouts, yet they are part of the overall costs ensuing from the lack of power supply in the after effects of the failure. Illustrations of such are the loss of productive activity, or the loss of value addition (Bental, B., & Ravid, S. A. 1982). Nooij M., Koopmans C., Bijvoet C. (2007) argues that these indirect costs constitute a substantial amount of the total costs and the exploration of the losses inflicted on businesses in the case of power disruptions is dependent on that production information on the gross value added of businesses, industry and public management are integrated as a crucial gauge of economic movement. This is for the reason that economic endeavours are in utmost situations closely related to power provision. The price elasticity for electricity, described as the proportion of the incline of the price demand curve apportioned by the proportion of price over demand, has been computed by a several researchers from diverse republics (Baarsma, B.E. & Hop, J.P. 2009). However, the author of this study expresses that the spread in elasticities is enormous, and it may be argued that there is no authentic elasticity and that even if it were feasible to attain a logical amount of the elasticity, it would vary substantially with time and is consequently of miniature assistance in deciding the impact of price on demand which are not essentially a social cost, but they may be regarded in the derivation of policy.
8. Proposed Methodology and Data Collection
The following section of the project paper will briefly illustrates the detailed existing methods for evaluating the socio-economic costs of electricity supply interruptions and the value of supply security on the ME’s. It is also important to note that the general proposed research approach in phases is illustrated using the graphical representation of the research onion (Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. 2007) as illustrated in Appendix III:
8.1. Case Studies
The major benefits of this approach is that it is founded on authentic measures instead of theoretical circumstances which makes it unproblematic for electricity customers to give detailed assessments of the costs (World Bank (2008). In spite of this, this approach is restrained by the particular features of the electricity interruptions for instance location, time or period and consequently, it is challenging to take a broad view of the approach (Yin, R. (2008). A further drawback is that given that some of the electricity interruptions are frequently initiated by weather such as lightning or natural disasters like seismic activities, it is regularly unfeasible to segregate the impacts of the power interruptions from the other causes of these instigating events (Telson M. L. 1975).
8.2. Consumer Surveys
Consumer surveys are the utmost frequently utilised approach to assess the costs of a non-market services, such as the costs of supply security, or the willingness to pay for evading electricity interruptions (Abdullah, S. & Mariel, P. 2010). Fundamentally there are two hypothetical methods have been established as revealed preferences and stated preferences. Some researchers have made known that revealed preferences (market behaviour) delivers a more objective foundation than subjective assessment (surveys) for approximating the cost of electricity interruptions because it depicts what individuals’ practical action than their theoretical feedback
8.3. Ethical Considerations
The author will take the supreme safety measures to protect the rights of the
partakers in the research. Anonymity of interviewees will be ensured by name coding to conceal their identities in the questionnaires. Permission to conduct this research from relevant Malawi authorities such as the Ministry of Energy and Mining will be obtained to protect informants participating in this study.
9. Proposed Structure/ Outline of the study
The study is established with two perspectives in mind. It appears there is no record of a research in Lilongwe of the socio-economic costs of electricity interruptions. Furthermore, because of the unfortunate security condition, low Gross Domestic Product and Human Development Index of Malawi as one of the poorest nations in the world, the soci0-economic information for the Lilongwe region estimated will be tremendously scarce. As a result, this research’s distinctive dataset will have a substantial practical value and could be utilised for future studies (Leedy, P. & Ormrod, J. 2012) This project research will be structured as follows:
The first part of the work will introduce the Malawi energy sector and its encounters. Established on survey activities on the identified groups and the author´s experience of the power outages situation, socio-economic costs of the electricity blackouts will be assessed. Data on this effect will be assembled by means of survey, semi-interviews, personal observation and significant literature (Fink, A. 2008). The second segment will briefly emphasise on the welfares of having supply to electricity and describes the power blackouts and their descriptions. The third section shall present the reader to the capital city of Malawi, Lilongwe and its political, social, economic and energy sector profile. Segment four will deliver an overview of the literature and the approaches of approximating the costs of electricity blackouts and the willingness to pay for assessing supply security.
A questionnaire and survey design will be created and scrutinised in the later Segments with associated survey outcomes conversed in Section six. The conjoint analysis approach will be utilised to ascertain the legit approximations of the cost of power outages to Lilongwe’s Micro-economic enterprises (Keppel, G. & Wickens, T. 2004) In addition, a production function methodology will be put into operation to the utmost up to date information from the survey to calculate the welfare costs of power outages.
The author intends to develop the willingness to pay for supply electricity indicators for in Section seven by means of interval regression and lastly Segment eight shall address on the research a discussion of the research process and outcomes. The concluding segment will deduce by conversing the outcomes and future development of the circumstances as well as presenting feasible remedies (Bordens, K. & Abbot, B. 2010)
10. The Conclusion
This project paper first emphasised the prevailing electrical interruptions in Malawi which was followed the case study region of Lilongwe’s Central Business Districts through mutually the socio-economic indicators and the existing challenges of the power generation sector impacting the Micro-economic enterprises by the description of literature on the characteristics of power disruptions and the costs and the challenges are associated with them.
The author also introduced the diverse procedural methods for estimating these costs also briefly discussed to pave way for the forthcoming detailed research. The paper further expresses the overall description on the structure of the study. Attributable to low economic and underdeveloped state of the nation of Malawi, the social and economic data for the Lilongwe region on outage supply are exceedingly scarce leading to the existence of many research gap on the subject.
In order to approximate the socio-economic costs of power supply interruption on the ME’s in Lilongwe, the author intends to interview a considerable business to be derived from a survey quantity calculation, consequently generating a distinctive dataset of great value.
10.1. Possible constraints of the Study
The author is aware of the drawbacks and inadequacies although the research may have deemed to be carefully planned and well prepared. The study will be conducted during a short time spell in relation to the magnitude and complexity of the research topics. The short period of time specified to conduct the academic research further causes the population of the research group to be small for easier management which may not represent the majority of the views at national level.
The study conclusion will only be pertained to the ME’s of Lilongwe CBD and therefore cannot be taken into a broad view of entire Malawi. Attributable to limited financial provision, a more widespread survey to guarantee the representativeness of the sample is outside the scope of this study. However, this study will deliver direction towards the prospect evaluation of the price of energy sector dependability.
The projected value of supply security may be used by the government of Malawi through their parastatal in ESCOM and EGENCO when forming decisions concerning adequate power supply, electricity tariff rates and global power contract conditions.
11. Bibliography
1. Abdullah, S. & Mariel, P. (2010): Choice Experiment Study on the Willingness to Pay to Improve Electricity Services. Energy Policy, 38(8),

2. Baarsma, B.E. & Hop, J.P. (2009): Pricing power outages in the Netherlands, Energy, 34 (9),

3. Beenstock, M., E. Goldin & Y. Haitovsky (1998): Response bias in a conjoint analysis of power outages, Energy Economics 20(2), 135-156

4. Bental, B., & Ravid, S. A. (1982): A simple method for evaluating the marginal cost of unsupplied electricity, The bell journal of economics, 13(1),

5. Bordens, K. & Abbot, B. (2010), Research Design and Methods: A Process Approach, 8th Edition, McGraw-Hill Humanities

6. Bose, R. K., Shukla M., Leena S. & Yaron G. (2006): Cost of unserved power in Karnataka, India, Energy Policy, 34(12),

7. Fink, A. (2008), How to Conduct Surveys: A Step-by-Step Guide, 4th Edition, Sage Publications

8. Keppel, G. & Wickens, T. (2004), Design and Analysis: A Researcher’s Handbook, 4th Edition, Prentice Hall

9. Leedy, P. & Ormrod, J. (2012), Practical Research: Planning and Design, 10th Edition, Addison Wesley

10. Nooij M., Koopmans C., Bijvoet C. (2007), The value of supply security
The costs of power interruptions: Economic input for damage reduction and
investment in networks, Energy Economics 29(2007), pp. 277-295

11. Orcher, L. (2007), Conducting a Survey: Techniques for a Term Project, Pyrczak Publishing

12. Reister D B. (1987). The link between energy and GOP in developing countries.
Energy, Vol12, No 6,

13. Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2007) Research Methods for Business Students. Pearson Education UK.

14. Simonoff, J.S., Zimmerman R., Restrepo C.E. et al. (2005): Electricity Case: Statistical Analysis of Electric Power Outages, CREATE Report #05-013, New York University Wagner Graduate School

15. Smith J.C. (1985), The electric route to economic growth. Energy Policy, Vol 13, No 2.

16. Telson M. L. (1975), The economics of alternative levels of reliability for electric
power systems. The Bell Journal of Economics. Vol 6, No 2.

17. United Nations (2013b): Main Page – 2012 – International Year of Sustainable Energy for All online, accessed on 12/05/2018,

18. World Bank (2008): The Welfare Impact of Rural Electrification: A Reassessment of the Costs and Benefits, An IEG Impact Evaluation, ISBN-13: 978-0-8213-7367-5

19. Yin Y., Guo J., Zhao J. & Bu G. (2003): Preliminary Analysis Large Scale Blackout in Interconnected North America Power Grid On August 14 and lessons to be drawn. Power System Technology, 27(10), 8-12

20. Yin, R. (2008), Case Study Research: Design and Methods (Applied Research Methods), 4th Edition, Sage Publications

12. Appendices
12.1. Appendix I: Map of Lilongwe showing the Study Area

12.2. Appendix II. some of Micro-economic enterprises impacted by outages
12.3. Appendix III. The research Onion

The onion chart below shows the overview approach of the research paradigm and
philosophies to be pursued in the research evaluation of the socio-economic costs of electricity interruption on the micro-economic enterprises.
The practical reality is that a presented research question shall fall neatly into the above highlighted philosophical domain (keywords) as suggested in the ‘onion’.

12.4. Appendix IV. Project Paper (Question Paper)




The research proposal should be about 8-10 pages and should be structured as follows:
1. Introduction and statement of the problem
This should cover the general information about the issue(s) under consideration and
reasons for raising an issue.
2. Research Goal/Aim/Purpose/Objectives
A clearly focused research goal (or general objective) and a listing of the specific
objectives (maximum of three).
The specific objectives MUST exclude statements on recommendations
3. Research Question and or Hypothesis
A maximum of three, which MUST be related to the research objectives.
4. Rationale/Motivation/Justification/Significance
This should address the relevance of the study, with emphasis on the contribution to
knowledge, or theory, or policy, or methodology or a broad development agenda.
5. Scope of the Study
Geographical/ sectoral limitations
6. Brief literature review
7. Proposed Methodology and Data
9. Proposed Structure/ Outline of the study
10. Bibliography/ Reading list
Font Size: 12

Font Type: Arial

Spacing: 1½

Number of Pages: N/A

Module Lecturer: Caiphas Chikwoti
• Glossary
o Micro-Enterprises (MEs)-see Appendix II:
This expression shall be utilised to imply very small trade that yields goods or services for subsistence means or small cash revenue. The world has no entirely conventional description of MEs, as diverse nations employ different procedures of scope contingent on their level of growth.
The regularly employed benchmarks are the overall quantity of workforces, sum of the investment and sales turnover. In the setting of Malawi, MEs are those engrossing up to four individuals, and in the majority of circumstances household members or engaging capital equivalent to about five million Kwacha.
o HDI:
This is an acronym for Human Development Index; a multifarious index evaluating average accomplishment in three fundamental magnitudes of human development- a healthy life, intelligence and good living standard. The HDI is engendered of UNDP and accessible in the yearly Human Development Statements.
o Electricity Services:
An electricity service is the function provided through use of electricity and in connection with a machine, the illustrations of electricity services are cooking, lighting, manufacturing, and communication.
o Rural Area:
The expression “rural area” represents to a physical place external to the zones that are managerially controlled by urban authorities. In the project paper perspective, a rural area is reasonably disadvantaged in terms of up to date energy infrastructure, grid electricity or a petroleum product supply chain. Therefore, a rural area in this project paper’s setting might be a township, a market hub, informal communities, or still a peri-urban region.
o Livelihood:
Largely or in broad terms, a livelihood encompasses the competences, resources and undertakings necessary for a way of living. A livelihood is viable when it may withstand the forces of pressure and shocks, and deliver viable means of support opportunities for the subsequent generation, and adds total welfares to other livelihoods at both the confined and world-wide levels for a long or short period. In the narrow, economic perspective, a live hood is utilised to mean the undertakings people use to obtain food, shelter and clothes. In this project paper the meaning of livelihood to take a wider sense.

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