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Thwaites, T. (2014). Technology and
music education in a digitized, disembodied, posthuman world. Action, Criticism
& Theory for Music Education,

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Reese, S. (2001). ?Tools for
Thinking in Sound.? Music Educators Journal 88(1): 42?46 + 53.

·        
Mills, J. and
Murray, A. (2000) Music technology inspected: good teaching in Key Stage 3. British
Journal of Music Education,  17(2), 129-156.

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Folkestad, G. (1996) Computer
based creative music making: Young people’s music in the digital age,  Goteborg:Acta Universitatis
Gothoburgensis. 

·        
Cain, T. (2004). Theory, technology and the music
curriculum. British Journal of Music Education, 21(2), 215-221.

 

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·        
Byrne, C.
& MacDonald, R.A.R. (in press) The use of Information &  Communication Technology (I) in the Scottish Music Curriculum: A Focus Group
Investigation of Themes and Issues.  Music
Education Research.

·        
Burnard, P. (2004). Examining
teacher-pupil thinking about musical learning. Proceedings of the 8th
International Conference on Music Perception & Cognition, Northwestern
University, Evanston, IL.

Bibliography

Clearly
there are many possibilities for the use of ICTs/music technology in the world
of music education. From streaming audio/video to the more traditional CDs and
DVDs; from online research to software programs that deliver immediate feedback
on aural skills training; from the use of notational software like Finale or
Sibelius to the use of GarageBand or Dance eJay, there are
many possibilities to integrate ICT into the music classroom – whether that
classroom is face to face or online. However, there is a gaping hole in the
body of research that needs to be addressed. A new paradigm needs to be
created, whereupon the extensive audio and video records are shared via the
internet – perhaps YouTube or set up on special website with private sharing sights
(with parental and student consent). In cases where actual sheet music has been
created, that needs to be shared as well. Music is aural by nature, and until
there is a way to share the aural results – until these changes are made, we
cannot have a full sharing of ideas. Perhaps the community of practice via
social media will be the best way to informally share the results of these
different experiments, with teachers enthusiastically showing off the work of
their students and convincing other teachers in the process.

Conclusion

o  
Also, from this study showed that technology improved concentration on
students, maximized time on-task, developed and enhance cooperative learning,
and raised higher level thinking skills.

o  
Music instruction provided through the use of technology assisted program
contributes to a sense of professional development and personal growth on the
part of the music educators.

o  
Student attitudes toward classroom music are not only positively enhanced,
but also the level of interests and motivation are sustained across the
academic years.

o  
Long and short-term music achievement, is significantly increased when
compared to existing approaches of classroom music.

o  
Students who receive hands-on instruction had greater comprehension of
musical concepts compared with students taught with traditional approaches and
methods.

Many researches have been
made on the effects of technology on music learning. The Yamaha Corporation conducted
a research related to the use of technology in music education, and several key
findings have emerged from this study. These include:

Technology is a powerful
tool that can support and transform education in many ways, from making it
easier for teachers to create instructional materials to enabling new ways for
people to learn and work together. With the worldwide reach of the Internet and
the ubiquity of smart devices that can connect to it, a new age of anytime
anywhere education is dawning. It will be up to instructional designers and
educational technologies to make the most of the opportunities provided by
technology to change education so that effective and efficient education is
available to everyone everywhere.

 

Technology has also begun
to change the roles of teachers and learners. In the traditional classroom,
such as what we see depicted in de Voltolina’s illustration, the teacher is the
primary source of information, and the learners passively receive it. This
model of the teacher as the “sage on the stage” has been in education for a
long time, and it is still very much in evidence today. However, because of the
access to information and educational opportunity that technology has enabled,
in many classrooms today we see the teacher’s role shifting to the “guide on
the side” as students take more responsibility for their own learning using
technology to gather relevant information. Schools and universities across the
country are beginning to redesign learning spaces to enable this new model of
education, foster more interaction and small group work, and use technology as
an enabler.

Technology has impacted almost every aspect of life
today, and education is no exception. Or is it? In some ways, education seems
much the same as it has been for many years. A 14th century illustration by Laurentius de Voltolina depicts a university lecture in
medieval Italy. The scene is easily recognizable because of its parallels to
the modern day. The teacher lectures from a podium at the front of the room
while the students sit in rows and listen. Many students have books open in
front of them and they appear to be following along. A few looks bored. Some
are talking to their friends. One appears to be sleeping. Classrooms today do
not look much different, though you might find modern students looking at their
laptops, tablets, or smart phones instead of books (though probably open to
Facebook). A pessimist would say that technology has done nothing to change
education.

 

            “Making the tech Connection” Is it
worth the time and effort?”. This question is one of the first questions asked
in an article named, “Music Education Journal, Teaching Music” by Catherine
Olsen, claims that, yes it very worthy it to “forge a new connection with
students through technology”. She also stated that technology assists a music
classroom in three particular areas: Encouraging
collaborative learning: Students can work on projects together using creation
programs like Apple’s Garage Band, Sibelius’ Groovy Music series, and more.
This also encourages students to learn from each other, not just from a
teacher. Augmenting interdisciplinary learning: Students can use music
technology to enhance learning in other subject areas. For example, a music
teacher had her 3rd grade students use Finale Notepad (a popular notation
software) to write songs for each state using facts they had gathered from
their social studies class. Attracting the attention of non-traditional
students: One expert states that middle school and high school bands,
orchestras, and choirs only reach about !5% of the school population. Music
technology courses (recording, composing with software, etc.) offer ways to
allow the other 85% of students to get involved in music. Olsen makes it clear that
technology “is a means, not an end.” Unfortunately, many teachers make use of
technology the point of a lesson. However, technology should be a tool used to
help enhance musical learning. The classes that we observed at the Johann
Strauss School of Music, Hamrun, was quite a music technology class. seeing
students work with and learn from each other, was a way of learning rarely
witnessed in a traditional music classroom. Furthermore, technology in music
classroom allows students who are not that talented n singing or in playing an
instrument, to express their interest in a different way.

Chipman et al.
2008: 211).

“encourage active learning, knowledge construction, inquiry, and
exploration on the part of the student, as opposed to being exposed to
information delivery systems” (Greaesser,

In the last few years many tools have become available
to the music educators that can significantly enhance student learning. It is
important for music educators to be aware of the full competences of such tools
that can help students to better performance, creativity and understanding
music. The word technology applies to and describes a wide variety of devices
and applications in music and music education. In the past 100 years,
technology had a great impact on music education. In 1983 the Carnegie Foundation
published A Nation at Risk. This publication cited that changes must be made in
our approach to education. One of the suggestions that this foundation offered
was to embrace technology. If we are to make the most of the opportunities that
technology affords us, then a broader view of technology is needed. Such a view
would attend not only too well-established methods, software resources and
hardware solutions; but also to new and developing trends. Digital technologies
that can be useful in music education are systems that:

Discussion

There have been many efforts to explore the possibilities
that music technology offers in education, in spite of the synchronous nature
of music performance (Dammers, 2009). In 2009, Dammers summed up the
conundrum of using Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in the field
of music education, stating that because music performance is, by its very
nature, synchronous, the use of ICT is problematic at best (Dammers, 2009, p.
22). Before
examining how technology is being used in music education, it is necessary to
lay out parameters for the term. Rees (2001) defined music technology as “the
systematic study of tools and techniques for music production, performance,
education, and research” (Rees, 2011, p. 154).

Literature Review

The
introduction of new information and communication technologies (I&CTs),
such as the Internet and multimedia devices has had an enormous impact upon
modern culture (Hargreaves, Miell & MacDonald, 2002). This is particularly
apparent within the music industry. Indeed, modern technological advances mean
that now, more than at any other time, music is pervasive and functions not
only as a pleasurable art form but also increasingly provides a soundtrack to
our professional, social and private lives (Hargreaves & North, 1997,
Frith, 2000; MacDonald & Miell, 2000; Sloboda, O’Neill & Ivaldi,
2001).  Moreover, almost every aspect of
the music industry today involves the use of I&CT in some shape or form.
For example, the use of digital recording hardware and computer based recording
and sequencing software occurs extensively in professional, amateur and
educational contexts (Folkestad, 1996). 
a technological revolution has taken place which affects all aspects of
music performance and listening 
(Folkestad, 1998). This
enormous change in the way in which we listen to and produce music has
generated a research imperative to understand the impact that these
technological advancements have on all aspects of music making (Byrne &
MacDonald, in press). The impact of new
technologies has been particularly influential within educational environments
and, in the music classroom for example, the range of possible uses of
keyboards, computers and recording technologies are extensive  (Byrne & MacDonald, in press, Mills &
Murray, 2000).

Introduction

The
impact of new technologies within music education has been enormous and there is an urgent need for research that
investigates the far reaching implications of this technological revolution. If music education is
to respond to the opportunities offered by the digital age, we will need
thoughtful and reflective teachers. These will be teachers who are able to
research their own practice, ask questions about the role of music technologies
as part of their own professional development and in the development of their students.
Digital technology is a powerful agent in moving the minds of teachers and
students alike. Today’s competitive world markets require workers of a
knowledge economy to possess ICT literacy, the “ability to use technology to
develop 21st century content knowledge and skills” (Partnership for
21st century Skills, 2006, p. 11). Schools are seen to play a critical role in
producing a workforce that is highly educated and skilled to support a
country’s economy. This recognition of education as a key contributor to the
economy has led school curricula in many countries to mandate ICT as a central
component, with teachers being increasingly expected to infuse ICT into the
teaching and learning processes. No matter what else may divide us, most music
educators are agreed on one general point. A central aim of defining how
effective music educational practice should happen in the digital music
classroom is an imperative; a view which is emphasized in policy and widely
acknowledged in teacher training. Yet, the critical roles played by creativity
and technology in supporting the promotion of pedagogic change is less clear.

Abstract

 

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